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HindiEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Sanskrit प्रथम (prathamá).

AdjectiveEdit

प्रथम (pratham)

  1. first, foremost
    Synonym: पहला (pahlā)
  2. preeminent

MarathiEdit

EtymologyEdit

Borrowed from Sanskrit प्रथम (prathamá).

AdjectiveEdit

प्रथम (pratham)

  1. first, prior, initial, chief, principal

AdverbEdit

प्रथम (pratham)

  1. first, at first, in the first place

ReferencesEdit

  • Maxine Berntsen (1982-1983), “प्रथम”, in A Basic Marathi-English Dictionary, New Delhi: American Institute of Indian Studies
  • James Thomas Molesworth (1857), “प्रथम”, in A dictionary, Marathi and English, Bombay: Printed for government at the Bombay Education Society's Press

SanskritEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Indo-Aryan *pratʰamás, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *pratʰamás. Cognate with Avestan 𐬟𐬭𐬀𐬙𐬆𐬨𐬀(fratəma), Old Persian 𐎳𐎼𐎫𐎶𐎠 (f-r-t-m-a), Old Armenian փարթամ (pʿartʿam). Replaces expected *pra-tamá, which would be the regular superlative of प्र (prá, forward, in front, forth).

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

प्रथम (prathamá)

  1. foremost, first (in time or in a series or in rank)
  2. earliest, primary, original, prior, former
  3. often translatable adverbially in the beginning of a compound; see especially प्रथमम् (prathamam), प्रथमात् (prathamāt)

DeclensionEdit

Masculine a-stem declension of प्रथम (prathamá)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative प्रथमः
prathamáḥ
प्रथमौ
prathamaú
प्रथमाः / प्रथमासः¹
prathamā́ḥ / prathamā́saḥ¹
Vocative प्रथम
práthama
प्रथमौ
práthamau
प्रथमाः / प्रथमासः¹
práthamāḥ / práthamāsaḥ¹
Accusative प्रथमम्
prathamám
प्रथमौ
prathamaú
प्रथमान्
prathamā́n
Instrumental प्रथमेन
prathaména
प्रथमाभ्याम्
prathamā́bhyām
प्रथमैः / प्रथमेभिः¹
prathamaíḥ / prathamébhiḥ¹
Dative प्रथमाय
prathamā́ya
प्रथमाभ्याम्
prathamā́bhyām
प्रथमेभ्यः
prathamébhyaḥ
Ablative प्रथमात्
prathamā́t
प्रथमाभ्याम्
prathamā́bhyām
प्रथमेभ्यः
prathamébhyaḥ
Genitive प्रथमस्य
prathamásya
प्रथमयोः
prathamáyoḥ
प्रथमानाम्
prathamā́nām
Locative प्रथमे
prathamé
प्रथमयोः
prathamáyoḥ
प्रथमेषु
prathaméṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic
Feminine ā-stem declension of प्रथमा (prathamā́)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative प्रथमा
prathamā́
प्रथमे
prathamé
प्रथमाः
prathamā́ḥ
Vocative प्रथमे
práthame
प्रथमे
práthame
प्रथमाः
práthamāḥ
Accusative प्रथमाम्
prathamā́m
प्रथमे
prathamé
प्रथमाः
prathamā́ḥ
Instrumental प्रथमया / प्रथमा¹
prathamáyā / prathamā́¹
प्रथमाभ्याम्
prathamā́bhyām
प्रथमाभिः
prathamā́bhiḥ
Dative प्रथमायै
prathamā́yai
प्रथमाभ्याम्
prathamā́bhyām
प्रथमाभ्यः
prathamā́bhyaḥ
Ablative प्रथमायाः
prathamā́yāḥ
प्रथमाभ्याम्
prathamā́bhyām
प्रथमाभ्यः
prathamā́bhyaḥ
Genitive प्रथमायाः
prathamā́yāḥ
प्रथमयोः
prathamáyoḥ
प्रथमानाम्
prathamā́nām
Locative प्रथमायाम्
prathamā́yām
प्रथमयोः
prathamáyoḥ
प्रथमासु
prathamā́su
Notes
  • ¹Vedic
Neuter a-stem declension of प्रथम (prathamá)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative प्रथमम्
prathamám
प्रथमे
prathamé
प्रथमानि / प्रथमा¹
prathamā́ni / prathamā́¹
Vocative प्रथम
práthama
प्रथमे
práthame
प्रथमानि / प्रथमा¹
práthamāni / práthamā¹
Accusative प्रथमम्
prathamám
प्रथमे
prathamé
प्रथमानि / प्रथमा¹
prathamā́ni / prathamā́¹
Instrumental प्रथमेन
prathaména
प्रथमाभ्याम्
prathamā́bhyām
प्रथमैः / प्रथमेभिः¹
prathamaíḥ / prathamébhiḥ¹
Dative प्रथमाय
prathamā́ya
प्रथमाभ्याम्
prathamā́bhyām
प्रथमेभ्यः
prathamébhyaḥ
Ablative प्रथमात्
prathamā́t
प्रथमाभ्याम्
prathamā́bhyām
प्रथमेभ्यः
prathamébhyaḥ
Genitive प्रथमस्य
prathamásya
प्रथमयोः
prathamáyoḥ
प्रथमानाम्
prathamā́nām
Locative प्रथमे
prathamé
प्रथमयोः
prathamáyoḥ
प्रथमेषु
prathaméṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic

NounEdit

प्रथम (prathamám

  1. (grammar) (namely वर्ण (varṇa)) the first consonant of a वर्ग (varga), a surd unaspirate letter
  2. (grammar) (namely पुरुष (puruṣa)) the first (in Western grammar terminology, the 3rd) person or its terminations
  3. (namely स्वर (svara)) the first tone
  4. (mathematics) the sum of the products divided by the difference between the squares of the cosine of the azimuth and the sine of the amplitude
  5. the first tithi of each lunar fortnight

DeclensionEdit

Masculine a-stem declension of प्रथम (prathamá)
Singular Dual Plural
Nominative प्रथमः
prathamáḥ
प्रथमौ
prathamaú
प्रथमाः / प्रथमासः¹
prathamā́ḥ / prathamā́saḥ¹
Vocative प्रथम
práthama
प्रथमौ
práthamau
प्रथमाः / प्रथमासः¹
práthamāḥ / práthamāsaḥ¹
Accusative प्रथमम्
prathamám
प्रथमौ
prathamaú
प्रथमान्
prathamā́n
Instrumental प्रथमेन
prathaména
प्रथमाभ्याम्
prathamā́bhyām
प्रथमैः / प्रथमेभिः¹
prathamaíḥ / prathamébhiḥ¹
Dative प्रथमाय
prathamā́ya
प्रथमाभ्याम्
prathamā́bhyām
प्रथमेभ्यः
prathamébhyaḥ
Ablative प्रथमात्
prathamā́t
प्रथमाभ्याम्
prathamā́bhyām
प्रथमेभ्यः
prathamébhyaḥ
Genitive प्रथमस्य
prathamásya
प्रथमयोः
prathamáyoḥ
प्रथमानाम्
prathamā́nām
Locative प्रथमे
prathamé
प्रथमयोः
prathamáyoḥ
प्रथमेषु
prathaméṣu
Notes
  • ¹Vedic

DescendantsEdit