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澪標

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澪標 (miotsukushi, miozukushi, miojirushi, reihyō): a traditional Japanese daybeacon in Osaka during the Meiji period.

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
みお
Jinmeiyō
つくし > づくし
Grade: 4
kun’yomi Irregular
Kanji in this term
みお
Jinmeiyō
つくし
Grade: 4
kun’yomi Irregular

Compound of  (みお) (mio, water channel) + (tsu, Old Japanese possessive particle) +  (くし) (kushi, skewer).[1]

Also encountered with the reading miozukushi. The tsukushi changes to zukushi as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

Notably, different publishers of the same historical texts appear to alternate between the miotsukushi and miojirushi readings, possibly due to historical or dialectal differences.

PronunciationEdit

  • (Irregular reading)

NounEdit

澪標 (hiragana みおつくし, rōmaji miotsukushi, historical hiragana みをつくし)
(alternative reading hiragana みおづくし, romaji miozukushi, historical hiragana みをづくし)

  1. a dolphin erected as a daybeacon or daymark: a navigational marker indicating the bounds of a water channel
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 14, poem 3429), text here
       () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () () [Man'yōgana]
       (とほつ) (あふみ) (いな) () (ほそ) ()みをつくし (あれ) (たの)めてあさましものを [Modern spelling]
      Tō-tsu-Ōmi Inasa-hosoe no miotsukushi are o tanomete asamashi mono o
      In Tōtsu Ōmi up Inasa Creek there stand the channel stakes―you could have made me follow and left me high and dry.[3]
    Synonyms: 澪木 (miogi); 澪杭 (miokui); 水尾坊木, 澪坊木 (miobōgi)
  2. allusion to 尽くし (tsukushi, exhausting)
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 12, poem 3162), text here
      水咫衝 (みをつく) () (こころ) (つくし) () (おもへ) (かも)此間 (ここに) () (もと) () (いめ)西 (にし)所見 (みゆる) [Man'yōgana]
      みをつくし (こころ) (つく)して (おも)へかもここにももとな (いめ)にし ()ゆる [Modern spelling]
      miotsukushi kokoro tsukushite omoe ka mo koko ni mo moto na ime ni shi miyuru
      (please add an English translation of this example)
  3. one of the sixty-one famous incense varieties, made from aromatic 伽羅 (kyara) wood with a bitter smell
    Hypernym: 六十一種名香 (rokujūichi shumeikō)
Usage notesEdit
  • At the time of the Man'yōshū, the "dolphin" sense referred to those at Tōtōmi Province; during the Heian period the sense was reserved to the markers at the bay of Naniwa, present-day Osaka.
  • Since the Heian period, the "dolphin" sense can be used as a 掛詞 (kakekotoba) to pun against the sense of 身を尽くし (mi o tsukushi, literally “exhausting one's body” → “with all one's might, with all one's heart and soul):
    • c. 951-953, Gosen Wakashū (book 13, poem 860; also Hyakunin Isshu, poem 20)
      わびぬれば (いま)はた (おな) (なに) ()なるみをつくしても ()はむとぞ (おも)
      wabinureba ima hata onaji Naniwa naru mi o tsukushite mo awan to zo omou
      Miserable, now, it is all the same. Channel-markers at Naniwa―even if it costs my life, I will see you again![4]

Proper nounEdit

澪標 (hiragana みおつくし, rōmaji Miotsukushi, historical hiragana みをつくし)

  1. the fourteenth chapter of The Tale of Genji

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
みお
Jinmeiyō
しるし > じるし
Grade: 4
kun’yomi

Compound of  (みお) (mio, water channel) +  (しるし) (shirushi, mark, sign). The shirushi changes to jirushi as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

Notably, different publishers of the same historical texts appear to alternate between the miojirushi and miotsukushi readings, possibly due to historical or dialectal differences.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

澪標 (hiragana みおじるし, rōmaji miojirushi, historical hiragana みをじるし)

  1. a dolphin erected as a daybeacon or daymark: a navigational marker indicating the bounds of a water channel
    • 12th century, Sankashū (book 1, poem 217)
       (ひろ) () (がは) (わた)りの (おき)みをじるし () (かさ) (ふか)五月雨 (さみだれ) (ころ)
      Hirose-gawa watari no oki no miojirushi mikasa zo fukaki samidare no koro
      (please add an English translation of this example)

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
れい
Jinmeiyō
ひょう
Grade: 4
kan’on

/reiheu//reːhjoː/

From Middle Chinese 澪標 (MC leŋ piᴇu).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

澪標 (hiragana れいひょう, rōmaji reihyō, historical hiragana れいへう)

  1. a dolphin erected as a daybeacon or daymark: a navigational marker indicating the bounds of a water channel

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ Edwin A. Cranston (1998) The Gem-Glistening Cup, Stanford University Press, →ISBN, page 734
  4. ^ Joshua S. Mostow (1996) Pictures of the Heart: The Hyakunin Isshu in Word and Image, illustrated edition, University of Hawaii Press, →ISBN, page 201