U+4E32, 串
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E32

[U+4E31]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E33]
U+F905, 串
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F905

[U+F904]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F906]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 2, +6, 7 strokes, cangjie input 中中 (LL), four-corner 50006, composition )

Derived characters edit

Further reading edit

Chinese Wikisource has digitized text of the Kangxi Dictionary entry for :
[[wikisource:zh:康熙字典/丨部/六畫#串|丨部/六畫]]

Wikisource


  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 80, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 80
  • Dae Jaweon: page 162, character 3
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 30, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+4E32

Chinese edit

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Warring States Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Transcribed ancient scripts
     


References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Pictogram (象形) – objects strung together.

Etymology 1 edit

simp. and trad.

Cognate with 穿 (OC *kʰljon, *kʰljons, “to pierce through; to wear”).

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • chhǹg - vernacular;
  • chhoàn - literary.
Note:
  • cuang3 - Shantou;
  • cuêng3 - Chaozhou.

Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 1647
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʰjons/

Definitions edit

  1. to string together; to link up
  2. string; chain; series of objects
  3. skewer
      ―  chuànshāo  ―  food roasted on a skewer
    羊肉  ―  yángròuchuàn  ―  mutton kebab
  4. Classifier for strung, bunched or clustered objects.
    珠子  ―  chuàn zhūzǐ  ―  a string of beads
    鞭炮  ―  chuàn biānpào  ―  a string of firecrackers
    葡萄  ―  chuàn pútáo  ―  a bunch of grapes
  5. to cross; to criss-cross; to traverse to; to mix (undesirably)
  6. (literary, or in compounds) to gang up on; to conspire; to collaborate
  7. to pay a visit to; to visit; to move about
  8. (literary, or in compounds) to play a role; to act; to perform
      ―  chuàn  ―  to give a guest performance
  9. (chiefly Taiwan, Internet) thread
  10. (Cantonese) to spell a word in Roman letters
  11. (Cantonese, slang, may be derived from 串聯 during the Cultural Revolution) cocksure; arrogant; cocky
    alt. forms: (cùn)
  12. (Cantonese, slang) to humiliate; to provoke
    alt. forms: (cùn)
Synonyms edit
  • (bunch):
  • (to mix):
  • (to gang up on):
  • (to pay a visit):
  • (to play a role):
  • (to walk about):

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

  • Hong Kong English: inch (cocky, etc.) (semantic loan)

Etymology 2 edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𰀁

Cognate with (OC *koːn, *koːns, “to penetrate”).

Pronunciation edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (70)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () II
Fanqie
Baxter kwaenH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kˠuanH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʷᵚanH/
Shao
Rongfen
/kuɐnH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kwaɨnH/
Li
Rong
/kuanH/
Wang
Li
/kwanH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kwanH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
guàn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gwaan3
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
guàn
Middle
Chinese
‹ kwænH ›
Old
Chinese
/*kˁro[n]-s/
English custom

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 1646
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kroːns/

Definitions edit

  1. to get close to; to fawn on; to be obsequious to; to curry favor with
  2. people on intimate terms
  3. habit; custom
  4. to joke; to banter

Compounds edit

Etymology 3 edit

simp. and trad.

Pronunciation edit


Definitions edit

  1. Used in 串夷.

References edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

Readings edit

From (MC *tsyhwen, “skewer; traverse; visit; perform”):

From (MC kwaenH, “curry favor; custom, habit”):

Compounds edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term
くし
Grade: S
kun’yomi
 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

/kusi//kuɕi/

From Old Japanese.[1] Appears in the Nihon Shoki, finished CE 720.

Cognate with (kushi, comb).[2]

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(くし) (kushi

  1. a skewer, spit
    Synonyms: 串刺し (kushizashi), 焼き串 (yakigushi)
  2. any slender object that can pierce other objects, especially:
    1. (Shinto) Short for 玉串 (tamagushi): a branch of a (sakaki) tree used as a Shinto offering
      • c. 11201140, Konjaku Monogatarishū (book 24, story 51)
        ()()(へい)(くし)(かき)(つけ)(たてまつ)りたりける
        sono gohei no kushi ni kakitsukete tatematsuritarikeru
        That branch of streamers, written and presented...
    2. Short for 幕串 (makugushi): a post used to hang a curtain
  3. a candle's wick
    Synonym: (shin)
Derived terms edit

Proper noun edit

(くし) (Kushi

  1. a surname

Etymology 2 edit

Kanji in this term
くし
Grade: S
(ateji)
kun’yomi

Clipping of プロクシ, from English proxy; possibly reinforced by the idea of "going through". Kanji is an ateji (当て字).

Noun edit

(くし) (kushi

  1. (slang, computing) a proxy server
    Synonyms: プロキシ (purokishi), プロクシ (purokushi), プロクシサーバー (purokushi sābā), 串鯖 (kushisaba, literally skewer mackerel)
    (ちゅう)(ごく)(くし)
    Chūgoku kushi
    a Chinese proxy
Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. ^ Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. ^ Matsumura, Akira (1995) 大辞泉 [Daijisen] (in Japanese), First edition, Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  3. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle Chinese (MC kwaenH).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 관〮 (Yale: kwán)

Pronunciation edit

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 익힐 (ikhil gwan))

  1. Hanja form? of (to become habituated to something).

Compounds edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Late Middle Chinese (LMC *tʂʰyanH).

Hanja edit

(eumhun 꿰미 (kkwemi cheon))

  1. Hanja form? of (string; chain; skewer).
  2. Hanja form? of (to string; to thread; to skewer).
  3. Hanja form? of (receipt).

Compounds edit

Etymology 3 edit

Misreading of Middle Chinese (MC tsrheanX).

Hanja edit

(eumhun 꼬챙이 (kkochaeng'i chan))

  1. Hanja form? of (skewer).
    Synonym: ( (chan))

Etymology 4 edit

Related to Middle Korean 곶다〮 (Yale: kwòctá).

Hanja edit

(eumhun 이름 (ttang ireum got))

  1. Hanja form? of (used as a suffix in placenames).
  2. Hanja form? of (cape).

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Old Japanese edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Japonic *kusi.

Cognate with (kusi, comb).[1]

Noun edit

(kusi) (kana くし)

  1. tine, stake, skewer: any slender object that can pierce other objects

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Japanese: (kushi)

References edit

  1. ^ ”, in デジタル大辞泉 [Digital Daijisen]‎[1] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, updated roughly every four months

Vietnamese edit

Alternative forms edit

Han character edit

: Hán Việt readings: quán ((cổ)(hoạn)(thiết))[2][1][3]
: Nôm readings: xiên[2], xuyên[2], xuyến[2], quán[1]

  1. chữ Hán form of quán (to string an object).

References edit