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ChineseEdit

 
emptied; leisure; air; sky; empty; in vain
hand; convenient; ‑er
simp. and trad.
(空手)

PronunciationEdit


VerbEdit

空手

  1. to be empty-handed
  2. to be unarmed
  3. to be without a copy, model, diagram, blueprint, etc.

Derived termsEdit

NounEdit

空手

  1. Short for 空手道 (kōngshǒudào, “karate”).

JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
から
Grade: 1

Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Compound of (kara, Tang Dynasty; China) +‎ (te, hand), as the art was originally transmitted from China to Okinawa, and thence to mainland Japan.[1][2]

The use of to spell the kara portion is an example of both phonetic ateji (当て字) and semantic jukujikun (熟字訓) to express the idea of “empty-handed” or “unarmed”.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

空手 (hiragana からて, rōmaji karate)

  1. karate
Derived termsEdit
DescendantsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
から
Grade: 1

Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Compound of (kara, empty) +‎ (te, hand).[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

空手 (hiragana からて, rōmaji karate)

  1. the state of being empty-handed
     (まい)った! (しゅっ) (ちょう)したのにお土産 (みやげ) (わす)れて、空手 (からて) (かえ)ってしまった。
    Maitta! Shutchō shita no ni omiyage o wasurete, karate de kaette shimatta.
    Oh no! I went on a trip, but I forgot to get any gifts, and returned empty-handed.
Usage notesEdit

Note that this term in Japanese is a noun, but it is often translated into English as the adjective empty-handed.

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
あ(き)
Grade: 1

Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Compound of (aki, empty, open) +‎ (te, hand).[1][2]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

空手 (hiragana あきて, rōmaji akite)

  1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) the left, the left hand, the left-hand side (from the way a blind person would hold their cane in their right hand, leaving the left empty)
  2. (archaic, possibly obsolete) (by extension) someone with nothing to do, someone unoccupied at the moment, an idler
    Synonyms: 手隙 (tesuki), 透き (tesuki), 手明き (teaki)

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term
そら
Grade: 1
て > で
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Compound of (sora, sky; out of the blue) +‎ (te, hand).[1][2] The te changes to de as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

空手 (hiragana そらで, rōmaji sorade)

  1. (archaic) sudden-onset pain in one's hands or arms with no clear immediate cause, such as due to arthritis or neuralgia

Etymology 5Edit

Kanji in this term
むな
Grade: 1
て > で
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Compound of (muna, empty, hollow) +‎ (te, hand). The te changes to de as an instance of rendaku (連濁).

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

空手 (hiragana むなで, rōmaji munade)

  1. (archaic, possibly obsolete) the state of being empty-handed, bare-handed, unarmed
  2. (archaic, possibly obsolete) the state of being empty-handed, doing nothing with no success or positive result

Etymology 6Edit

Kanji in this term
くう
Grade: 1
しゅ
Grade: 1
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese 空手 (MC kʰuŋ ɕɨuX, literally “empty + hand”).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

空手 (hiragana くうしゅ, rōmaji kūshu)

  1. the state of being empty-handed, bare-handed, unarmed
    Synonyms: 素手 (sude), 空拳 (kūken), 手ぶら (te-bura)

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN