See also: 🈳
U+7A7A, 空
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7A7A

[U+7A79]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7A7B]
Emoji u1f233.svg
🈳 U+1F233, 🈳
SQUARED CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7A7A
🈲
[U+1F232]
Enclosed Ideographic Supplement 🈴
[U+1F234]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 116, +3, 8 strokes, cangjie input 十金一 (JCM), four-corner 30101, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 863, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 25415
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1289, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 4, page 2719, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+7A7A

ChineseEdit

trad.
simp. #
alternative forms 𠀝
𫞹
𢦉

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
 

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs): semantic  (cave, hole) + phonetic  (OC *koːŋ).

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(g/k)uŋ (hole; orifice; inner part). (OC *kʰloːŋʔ, “hole”) is probably the endoactive derivation of (OC *kʰoːŋ, “hollow; empty”) (Schuessler, 2007). Cognate with Tibetan ཁུང (khung, hole), Jingpho ladi hku (nostril), Chepang घाङ्‌ (gʰaŋ, hole), Burmese အခေါင် (a.hkaung, hollow place; cavity), Naxi ko³³ (cave; hole; pit) (STEDT).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • kĕ̤ng - vernacular;
  • kŭng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • khang - vernacular;
    • khong - literary.
    Note:
    • kang1 - vernacular;
    • kong1 - literary.
  • Wu
  • Xiang
    • (Changsha)
      • Wiktionary: kong1 / kong4
      • Sinological IPA (key) (old-style): /kʰʊŋ³³/, /kʰʊŋ⁴⁵/
      • Sinological IPA (key) (new-style): /kʰən³³/, /kʰən⁴⁵/

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /kʰuŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /kʰuŋ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /kʰuŋ²¹/
    Jinan /kʰuŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /kʰəŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /kʰuŋ²⁴/
    Xi'an /kʰuŋ²¹/
    Xining /kʰuə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /kʰuŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /kʰũn³¹/
    Ürümqi /kʰuŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /kʰoŋ⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /kʰoŋ⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /kʰoŋ⁵⁵/
    Kunming /kʰoŋ/
    Nanjing /kʰoŋ³¹/
    Hefei /kʰəŋ²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /kʰuəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /kʰuŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /kʰũŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /kʰoŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /kʰoŋ⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /kʰoŋ³³/
    Wenzhou /kʰoŋ³³/
    Hui Shexian /kʰuʌ̃³¹/
    Tunxi /kʰan¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /kʰoŋ³³/
    Xiangtan /kʰən³³/
    Gan Nanchang /kʰuŋ⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /kʰuŋ⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /kʰuŋ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hoŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /huŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /huŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kʰɔŋ⁵⁵/
    /kʰaŋ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kʰøyŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kʰɔŋ⁵⁴/
    /kɔŋ³³/ ~闲
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kʰoŋ³³/
    /kʰaŋ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /xoŋ²³/
    /xaŋ²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (1)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰuŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰuŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰuŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰəwŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰuŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰuŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰuŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    kōng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    kōng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ khuwng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰˁoŋ/
    English hollow, empty; hole

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 4034
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰoːŋ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. empty; hollow; void
      箱子 / 箱子  ―  Zhè xiāngzi shì kōng de.  ―  This box is empty.
      盒子 [MSC, trad.]
      盒子 [MSC, simp.]
      Zài hézi lǐ yǒu xiē kōng píng. [Pinyin]
      There are some empty bottles in the box.
    2. exhausted; emptied
    3. open; spacious; vast
    4. quiet and still; secluded
    5. lacking substance; fictitious; fabricated
      /   ―  kōnghuà  ―  empty talk
    6. (Min Dong) hungry
    7. air; sky; atmosphere
      /   ―  kōng  ―  air; atmosphere
        ―  tiānkōng  ―  the sky
        ―  hángkōng  ―  aviation
      調 /   ―  kōngtiáo  ―  air conditioning
    8. space; outer space; cosmos; universe
        ―  tàikōng  ―  outer space
      /   ―  kōngjiān  ―  space
    9. (Buddhism) sunyata; emptiness; void of the world of the senses
    10. (Taoism) emptiness and quiet
    11. in vain; for nothing
    12. only (left, remain, etc.)
    13. to exhaust
    14. to miss the target
    15. (Min Nan) hole; cavity
    SynonymsEdit
    • (hungry):
    • (hole):

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    Note: hung3 - rare.
    Note:
    • káe̤ng - vernacular;
    • kóng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • khòng - literary (including “zero”);
    • khàng - vernacular.
    Note: kang3 - “zero”.

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (1)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰuŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰuŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰuŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰəwŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰuŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰuŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰuŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    kòng
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 4045
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰoːŋs/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to make empty; to impoverish
    2. to leave empty; to leave blank
    3. vacant; unoccupied; available
      房間 / 房间  ―  Yǒu kòng fángjiān ma?  ―  Is there any vacant room?
      位子 [MSC, trad.]
      位子 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè ge wèizǐ kòng zhe ma? [Pinyin]
      Is this seat available?
    4. spare time; free time; leisure
      今天  ―  Wǒ jīntiān yǒu kòng.  ―  I'm free today.
      下午 / 下午  ―  Nǐ xiàwǔ yǒu kòng ma?  ―  Are you free this afternoon?
      現在醫生 / 现在医生  ―  Xiànzài yīshēng méi kòng.  ―  The doctor is not available now.
    5. empty space; room
      進來 [MSC, trad.]
      进来 [MSC, simp.]
      Zài jǐ ge rén jìnlái xíng ma? Chē lǐ hái yǒu kòng ma? [Pinyin]
      Can you fit in another person? Is there room in the car?
    6. (of time) gap; interval; break
      Synonyms: 間隙间隙 (jiànxì), 間隔间隔 (jiàngé)
    7. chance; opportunity
    8. (Min Nan) zero
    SynonymsEdit
    • (zero):
    • (spare time):
    • (empty): (Cantonese)

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 3Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Alternative form of (kǒng, “hole; cave; mouth”).

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: (くう) ()
    • Korean: (, gong)
    • Vietnamese: không ()

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. sky
    2. empty, hollow, bare, void, deserted
    ReadingsEdit
    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    そら
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Found in the Kojiki c. 712 CE.[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (そら) (sora

    1. the sky
    SynonymsEdit
    • (the sky): (ten)
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    から
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Cognate with (から) (kara, shell).[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (から) (kara

    1. empty
      (から)(ばこ)
      karabako
      empty box
    2. ineffectual
      (から)()
      karaburi
      in vain
    3. false
      (から)(げん)()
      karagenki
      bravado
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    くう
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC kʰuŋ, kʰuŋH).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (くう) (

    1. empty air
    2. meaninglessness
    3. (Buddhism) shunya (Śūnyatā): emptiness, vacuity, awareness, openness, thusness
    4. (Buddhism) void: one of the 五大 (godai, literally great five); also known as (sora), of particular importance as the highest of the five elements
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

    Kanji in this term
    うろ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (うろ) (uro

    1. cavity, hole

    Etymology 5Edit

    Kanji in this term
    うつお
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /utuho/: /utupo//utuɸo//utuwo//utuo/. See also (utsubo).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (うつお) (utsuo (historical kana うつほ)

    1. Alternative form of うろ

    Etymology 6Edit

    Kanji in this term
    うつぼ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Similar etymology to (utsuo). As /h/ gradually changed from [p] → [ɸ] → [w] → [Ø], the phoneme was voiced to [b] in order to maintain it.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (うつぼ) (utsubo

    1. Alternative form of うろ

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC kʰuŋ, kʰuŋH).

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (bil gong))

    1. Hanja form? of (empty; void).
    2. Hanja form? of (sky; air).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana すら, romaji sura)

    1. (literary) the sky; the heavens

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: không ((khô)(công)(thiết))[1][2][3][4][5]
    : Nôm readings: không[1][2][3][4][5][6], khung[1][2][3], khỏng[3][7][6], khong[1], cung[3], khống[4]

    1. Hán tự form of không (empty; void).
    2. Hán tự form of không (air; sky).
    3. Nôm form of không (zero; none).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit