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TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 116, +3, 8 strokes, cangjie input 十金一 (JCM), four-corner 30101, composition)

Derived charactersEdit

Further readingEdit

  • KangXi: page 863, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 25415
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1289, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2719, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+7A7A

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
variant forms 𠀝
𫞹
𢦉

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
 
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*kroːŋ, *ɡroːŋ
*kluːmʔ, *koːŋ
*kluːmʔ
*ŋr'oːŋ, *kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *qʰroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *koːŋ, *kuːŋ
*kroːŋ
*kroːŋ, *koːŋ
*kroːŋs, *koːŋs, *ɡoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰroːŋ, *kʰoŋ, *ɡoŋ
*qʰroːŋ
*qʰroːŋ, *qʰoːŋ
*qʰroːŋ
*ɡroːŋʔ
*ɡ·roːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ, *qʰoːŋ, *ɡoːŋ
*koːŋ, *kuːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋ
*koːŋs
*koːŋs
*kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ
*kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋʔ, *kʰoːŋs
*kʰoːŋs
*qʰoːŋ
*qʰoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ
*ɡoːŋ, *ɡoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋʔ
*ɡoːŋʔ
*koŋʔ
*koŋʔ
*kʰoŋ, *qʰoŋ
*kʰoŋʔ, *kʰoŋs
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ
*ɡoŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs): semantic  (cave, hole) + phonetic  (OC *koːŋ).

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Sino-Tibetan *(g/k)uŋ (hole; orifice; inner part). (OC *kʰloːŋʔ, “hole”) is probably the endoactive derivation of (OC *kʰoːŋ, “hollow; empty”) (Schuessler, 2007). Cognate with Tibetan ཁུང (khung, hole), Jingpho ladi hku (nostril), Chepang घाङ्‌ (gʰaŋ, hole), Burmese အခေါင် (a.hkaung, hollow place; cavity), Naxi ko³³ (cave; hole; pit) (STEDT).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • kĕ̤ng - vernacular;
  • kŭng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • khang - vernacular;
    • khong - literary.
    Note:
    • kang1 - vernacular;
    • kong1 - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /kʰuŋ⁵⁵/
    Harbin /kʰuŋ⁴⁴/
    Tianjin /kʰuŋ²¹/
    Jinan /kʰuŋ²¹³/
    Qingdao /kʰəŋ²¹³/
    Zhengzhou /kʰuŋ²⁴/
    Xi'an /kʰuŋ²¹/
    Xining /kʰuə̃⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /kʰuŋ⁴⁴/
    Lanzhou /kʰũn³¹/
    Ürümqi /kʰuŋ⁴⁴/
    Wuhan /kʰoŋ⁵⁵/
    Chengdu /kʰoŋ⁵⁵/
    Guiyang /kʰoŋ⁵⁵/
    Kunming /kʰoŋ/
    Nanjing /kʰoŋ³¹/
    Hefei /kʰəŋ²¹/
    Jin Taiyuan /kʰuəŋ¹¹/
    Pingyao /kʰuŋ¹³/
    Hohhot /kʰũŋ³¹/
    Wu Shanghai /kʰoŋ⁵³/
    Suzhou /kʰoŋ⁵⁵/
    Hangzhou /kʰoŋ³³/
    Wenzhou /kʰoŋ³³/
    Hui Shexian /kʰuʌ̃³¹/
    Tunxi /kʰan¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /kʰoŋ³³/
    Xiangtan /kʰən³³/
    Gan Nanchang /kʰuŋ⁴²/
    Hakka Meixian /kʰuŋ⁴⁴/
    Taoyuan /kʰuŋ²⁴/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /hoŋ⁵³/
    Nanning /huŋ⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /huŋ⁵⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kʰɔŋ⁵⁵/
    /kʰaŋ⁵⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kʰøyŋ⁴⁴/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kʰɔŋ⁵⁴/
    /kɔŋ³³/ ~闲
    Shantou (Min Nan) /kʰoŋ³³/
    /kʰaŋ³³/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /xoŋ²³/
    /xaŋ²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (1)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰuŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰuŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰuŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰəwŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰuŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰuŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰuŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    kōng
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    kōng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ khuwng ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰˁoŋ/
    English hollow, empty; hole

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 4034
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰoːŋ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. empty; hollow; void
      箱子 / 箱子  ―  Zhè xiāngzi shì kōng de.  ―  This box is empty.
      盒子 [MSC, trad.]
      盒子 [MSC, simp.]
      Zài hézi lǐ yǒu xiē kōng píng. [Pinyin]
      There are some empty bottles in the box.
    2. exhausted; emptied
    3. open; spacious; vast
    4. quiet and still; secluded
    5. lacking substance; fictitious; fabricated
      /   ―  kōnghuà  ―  empty talk
    6. (Min Dong) hungry
    7. air; sky; atmosphere
      /   ―  kōng  ―  air; atmosphere
        ―  tiānkōng  ―  the sky
        ―  hángkōng  ―  aviation
      調 /   ―  kōngtiáo  ―  air conditioning
    8. space; outer space; cosmos; universe
        ―  tàikōng  ―  outer space
      /   ―  kōngjiān  ―  space
    9. (Buddhism) sunyata; emptiness; void of the world of the senses
    10. (Taoism) emptiness and quiet
    11. in vain; for nothing
    12. only (left, remain, etc.)
    13. to exhaust
    14. to miss the target
    15. (Min Nan) hole; cavity
    SynonymsEdit
    • (hungry):
    Dialectal synonyms of (“hungry”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese ,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) , 飢餓
    Mandarin Beijing
    Taiwan
    Tianjin
    Harbin
    Shenyang
    Jinan
    Xi'an ,
    Wuhan
    Chengdu
    Yangzhou
    Hefei
    Cantonese Guangzhou 肚餓,
    Hong Kong 肚餓,
    Hong Kong (San Tin Weitou) 肚餓
    Hong Kong (Kam Tin Weitou) 肚餓
    Hong Kong (Ting Kok) 肚腹餓
    Hong Kong (Tung Ping Chau) 肚腹餓
    Macau
    Panyu 肚餓
    Huadu (Huashan) 肚餓
    Conghua 肚餓
    Zengcheng 肚餓
    Foshan 肚餓
    Nanhai (Shatou) 肚餓
    Shunde
    Sanshui 肚餓
    Gaoming (Mingcheng) 肚餓
    Zhongshan (Shiqi)
    Zhuhai (Qianshan)
    Doumen (Shangheng Tanka) 肚餓
    Doumen 肚餓
    Jiangmen (Baisha) 肚飢
    Xinhui 肚餓
    Taishan 肚飢
    Kaiping (Chikan) 肚餓
    Enping (Niujiang) 肚餓
    Heshan (Yayao) 肚餓
    Dongguan 屎肚餓
    Bao'an (Shajing) 肚餓
    Dapeng
    Shaoguan 肚餓
    Yunfu 肚餓
    Yangjiang
    Xinyi 肚餓
    Lianjiang 肚餓
    Nanning 肚餓
    Kuala Lumpur
    Ho Chi Minh City
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian 肚飢,
    Miaoli (N. Sixian) 肚飢, 肚枵
    Liudui (S. Sixian) 肚飢
    Hsinchu (Hailu) 肚屎枵, 肚枵
    Dongshi (Dabu) 肚飢, 肚屎枵, 肚枵
    Hsinchu (Raoping) 肚屎枵, 肚枵
    Yunlin (Zhao'an) 屎肚枵
    Hong Kong
    Senai
    Jin Taiyuan
    Min Bei Jian'ou 腹飢,
    Min Dong Fuzhou , dated
    Min Nan Xiamen
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou
    Taipei
    Kaohsiung
    Chaozhou , 肚困, 肚枵
    Haifeng 肚枵
    Johor Bahru
    Wu Suzhou
    Wenzhou
    Xiang Changsha ,
    Shuangfeng 肚䐬, intensified
    • (hole):
    Dialectal synonyms of (“hole”) [map]
    Variety Location Words
    Classical Chinese , ,
    Formal (Written Standard Chinese) , , 孔洞, 空洞, 空穴
    Mandarin Beijing 窟窿
    Jinan 窟窿
    Xi'an 窟窿子, 窟窿
    Wuhan 窟窿, 窟眼, 洞洞,
    Chengdu 窟窿, 洞洞,
    Yangzhou
    Hefei 窟窿,
    Cantonese Guangzhou 窿, 咕窿
    Hong Kong 窿, 咕窿
    Gan Nanchang
    Hakka Meixian 窿仔, 窿空仔
    Jin Taiyuan 窟窿, 窟子
    Min Bei Jian'ou
    Min Dong Fuzhou 空空
    Min Nan Xiamen , 空口
    Quanzhou
    Zhangzhou 空口
    Taipei
    Philippines (Manila)
    Chaozhou
    Wu Suzhou
    Wenzhou , , 窟窿
    Xiang Changsha
    Shuangfeng 眼貢,

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit


    Note: hung3 - rare.
    Note:
    • káe̤ng - vernacular;
    • kóng - literary.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • khòng - literary;
    • khàng - vernacular.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (1)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰuŋH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰuŋH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰuŋH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰəwŋH/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰuŋH/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰuŋH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰuŋH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    kòng
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 4045
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰoːŋs/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to make empty; to impoverish
    2. to leave empty; to leave blank
    3. vacant; unoccupied; available
      房間 / 房间  ―  Yǒu kòng fángjiān ma?  ―  Is there any vacant room?
      位子 [MSC, trad.]
      位子 [MSC, simp.]
      Zhè ge wèizǐ kòng zhe ma? [Pinyin]
      Is this seat available?
    4. spare time; free time; leisure
      今天  ―  Wǒ jīntiān yǒu kòng.  ―  I'm free today.
      下午 / 下午  ―  Nǐ xiàwǔ yǒu kòng ma?  ―  Are you free this afternoon?
      現在醫生 / 现在医生  ―  Xiànzài yīshēng méi kòng.  ―  The doctor is not available now.
    5. empty space; room
      進來 [MSC, trad.]
      进来 [MSC, simp.]
      Zài jǐ ge rén jìnlái xíng ma? Chē lǐ hái yǒu kòng ma? [Pinyin]
      Can you fit in another person? Is there room in the car?
    6. (of time) gap; interval; break
      Synonyms: 間隙间隙 (jiànxì), 間隔间隔 (jiàngé)
    7. chance; opportunity
    8. (Min Nan) zero
    SynonymsEdit
    • (spare time):

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 3Edit


    DefinitionsEdit

    1. Alternative form of (kǒng, “hole; cave; mouth”).

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese:  (くう) ()
    • Korean: (, gong)
    • Vietnamese: không ()

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. sky
    2. empty, hollow, bare, void, deserted
    ReadingsEdit
    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    そら
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    From Old Japanese. Found in the Kojiki c. 712 CE.[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana そら, rōmaji sora)

    1. the sky
    SynonymsEdit
    • (the sky): (ten)
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    から
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Cognate with  (から) (kara, shell).[1]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana から, rōmaji kara)

    1. empty
       (から) (ばこ)
      karabako
      empty box
    2. ineffectual
       (から) ()
      karaburi
      in vain
    3. false
       (から) (げん) ()
      karagenki
      bravado
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    くう
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC kʰuŋ, kʰuŋH).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana くう, rōmaji )

    1. empty air
    2. meaninglessness
    3. (Buddhism) shunya (Śūnyatā): emptiness, vacuity, awareness, openness, thusness
    4. (Buddhism) void: one of the 五大 (godai, literally great five); also known as (sora), of particular importance as the highest of the five elements
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 4Edit

    You can help Wiktionary by providing a proper etymology.

    Kanji in this term
    うろ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana うろ, rōmaji uro)

    1. cavity, hole

    Etymology 5Edit

    Kanji in this term
    うつお
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    /utuho/: /utupo//utuɸo//utuwo//utuo/. See also (utsubo).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana うつお, rōmaji utsuo, historical hiragana うつほ)

    1. Alternative form of うろ

    Etymology 6Edit

    Kanji in this term
    うつぼ
    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Similar etymology to (utsuo). As /h/ gradually changed from [p] → [ɸ] → [w] → [Ø], the phoneme was voiced to [b] in order to maintain it.

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana うつぼ, rōmaji utsubo)

    1. Alternative form of うろ

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC kʰuŋ, kʰuŋH).

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun (bil gong))

    1. Hanja form? of (empty; void).
    2. Hanja form? of (sky; air).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    OkinawanEdit

    KanjiEdit

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana すら, romaji sura)

    1. (literary) the sky; the heavens

    VietnameseEdit