Open main menu

Wiktionary β

U+7A7A, 空
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-7A7A

[U+7A79]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+7A7B]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 116 +3, 8 strokes, cangjie input 十金一 (JCM), four-corner 30101, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 863, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 25415
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1289, character 8
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 4, page 2719, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+7A7A

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms 𠀝

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Small seal script
 
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
kroːŋ, *ɡroːŋ
kluːmʔ, *koːŋ
kluːmʔ
ŋr'oːŋ, *kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
kroːŋ
kroːŋ, *qʰroːŋ
kroːŋ
kroːŋ
kroːŋ
kroːŋ
kroːŋ, *koːŋ, *kuːŋ
kroːŋ
kroːŋ, *koːŋ
kroːŋs, *koːŋs, *ɡoːŋ
kʰroːŋ
kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
kʰroːŋ
kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ
kʰroːŋ, *kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
kʰroːŋ, *kʰoŋ, *ɡoŋ
qʰroːŋ
qʰroːŋ, *qʰoːŋ
qʰroːŋ
ɡroːŋ
ɡroːŋʔ
ɡ·roːŋ
koːŋ
koːŋ
koːŋ
koːŋ, *qʰoːŋ, *ɡoːŋ
koːŋ, *kuːŋ
koːŋ
koːŋ
koːŋs
koːŋs
kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs
kʰoːŋ
kʰoːŋ
kʰoːŋ
kʰoːŋ
kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋʔ, *kʰoːŋs
kʰoːŋs
qʰoːŋ
qʰoːŋʔ
ɡoːŋ
ɡoːŋ
ɡoːŋ
ɡoːŋ
ɡoːŋ
ɡoːŋ, *ɡoːŋʔ
ɡoːŋʔ
ɡoːŋʔ
koŋʔ
koŋʔ
kʰoŋ, *qʰoŋ
kʰoŋʔ, *kʰoŋs
ɡoŋ
ɡoŋ
ɡoŋ
ɡoŋ

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *kʰoːŋ, *kʰoːŋs): semantic  (cave, hole) + phonetic  (OC *koːŋ).

Pronunciation 1Edit


Note:
  • kĕ̤ng - vernacular;
  • kŭng - literary.
Note:
  • khang - vernacular;
  • khong - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /kʰuŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /kʰuŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /kʰuŋ²¹/
Jinan /kʰuŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /kʰəŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /kʰuŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /kʰuŋ²¹/
Xining /kʰuə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /kʰuŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /kʰũn³¹/
Ürümqi /kʰuŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /kʰoŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /kʰoŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /kʰoŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /kʰoŋ/
Nanjing /kʰoŋ³¹/
Hefei /kʰəŋ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /kʰuəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /kʰuŋ¹³/
Hohhot /kʰũŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /kʰoŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /kʰoŋ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /kʰoŋ³³/
Wenzhou /kʰoŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /kʰuʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /kʰan¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /kʰoŋ³³/
Xiangtan /kʰən³³/
Gan Nanchang /kʰuŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /kʰuŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /kʰuŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /hoŋ⁵³/
Nanning /huŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /huŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /kʰɔŋ⁵⁵/
/kʰaŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /kʰøyŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kʰɔŋ⁵⁴/
/kɔŋ³³/ ~闲
Shantou (Min Nan) /kʰoŋ³³/
/kʰaŋ³³/
Haikou (Min Nan) /xoŋ²³/
/xaŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (29)
Final () (1)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kʰuŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʰuŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/kʰuŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kʰəwŋ/
Li
Rong
/kʰuŋ/
Wang
Li
/kʰuŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kʰuŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
kōng
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/2
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
kōng
Middle
Chinese
‹ khuwng ›
Old
Chinese
/*kʰˤoŋ/
English hollow, empty; hole

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 4034
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʰoːŋ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. empty; hollow; void
    箱子 / 箱子  ―  Zhè xiāngzi shì kōng de.  ―  This box is empty.
  2. exhausted; emptied
  3. open; spacious; vast
  4. quiet and still; secluded
  5. lacking substance; fictitious; fabricated
    /   ―  kōnghuà  ―  empty talk
  6. (Min Dong) hungry
  7. air; sky; atmosphere
    /   ―  kōng  ―  air; atmosphere
      ―  tiānkōng  ―  the sky
    •   ―  hángkōng  ―  aviation
    • 調 /   ―  kōngtiáo  ―  air conditioning
  8. space; outer space; cosmos; universe
      ―  tàikōng  ―  outer space
  9. (Buddhism) sunyata; emptiness; void of the world of the senses
  10. (Taoism) emptiness and quiet
  11. in vain; for nothing
  12. only (left, remain, etc.)
  13. to exhaust
  14. to miss the target
SynonymsEdit
  • (hungry):
Dialectal synonyms of (“hungry”) [map]
Variety Location Words
Classical Chinese
Formal (Written Standard Chinese) 飢餓
Mandarin Beijing
Taiwan
Tianjin
Harbin
Shenyang
Jinan
Xi'an
Wuhan
Chengdu
Yangzhou
Hefei
Cantonese Guangzhou 肚餓
Hong Kong 肚餓
Taishan 肚飢
Gan Nanchang
Hakka Meixian 肚飢
Miaoli (N. Sixian)
Liudui (S. Sixian)
Hsinchu (Hailu)
Dongshi (Dabu)
Zhuolan (Raoping)
Yunlin (Zhao'an)
Jin Taiyuan
Min Dong Fuzhou dated
Min Nan Xiamen
Quanzhou
Zhangzhou
Taipei
Kaohsiung
Chaozhou 肚困
Wu Suzhou
Wenzhou
Xiang Changsha
Shuangfeng 肚䐬 intensified

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 2Edit


Note: hung3 - rare.
Note:
  • káe̤ng - vernacular;
  • kóng - literary.
Note:
  • khòng - literary;
  • khàng - vernacular.

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (29)
Final () (1)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kʰuŋH/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʰuŋH/
Shao
Rongfen
/kʰuŋH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kʰəwŋH/
Li
Rong
/kʰuŋH/
Wang
Li
/kʰuŋH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kʰuŋH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
kòng
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 4045
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʰoːŋs/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to make empty; to impoverish
  2. to leave empty; to leave blank
  3. vacant; unoccupied; available
  4. spare time; free time; leisure
    今天  ―  Wǒ jīntiān yǒu kòng.  ―  I'm free today.
  5. empty space; room
  6. gap; chance; opportunity
  7. (Min Nan) zero

CompoundsEdit

Pronunciation 3Edit


DefinitionsEdit

  1. Alternative form of (kǒng, “hole; cave; mouth”).

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. sky
  2. empty, hollow, bare, void, deserted
ReadingsEdit
CompoundsEdit

Derived termsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
そら
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Found in the Kojiki c. 712 CE.[1]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana そら, rōmaji sora)

  1. the sky
SynonymsEdit
  • (the sky): (てん, ​ten)
Related termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
から
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Cognate with  (から) (kara, shell).[1]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana から, rōmaji kara)

  1. empty
     (から) (ばこ) (karabako, empty box)
  2. ineffectual
     (から) () (karaburi, in vain)
  3. false
     (から) (げん) () (karagenki, bravado)
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
くう
Grade: 1
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC kʰuŋ, kʰuŋH).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana くう, rōmaji )

  1. empty air
  2. meaninglessness
  3. (Buddhism) shunya (Śūnyatā): emptiness, vacuity, awareness, openness, thusness
  4. (Buddhism) void: one of the 五大 (godai; lit. "great five); also known as (そら, sora), of particular importance as the highest of the five elements

Etymology 4Edit

  This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Kanji in this term
うろ
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana うろ, rōmaji uro)

  1. cavity, hole

Etymology 5Edit

  This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions. You can also discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Kanji in this term
うつお
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

/utuho/: utupo → utuɸo → utuwo → utuo. See also (utsubo).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana うつお, rōmaji utsuo, historical hiragana うつほ)

  1. Alternative form of うろ

Etymology 6Edit

Kanji in this term
うつぼ
Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Similar etymology to (utsuo). As /h/ gradually changed from [p] → [ɸ] → [w] → [Ø], the phoneme was voiced to [b] in order to maintain it.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana うつぼ, rōmaji utsubo)

  1. Alternative form of うろ

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(gong)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (revised: gong, McCune-Reischauer: kong, Yale: kong)
    • Name (hangeul): (revised: bil)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(không, khỏng, cung, khung)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.