See also: alis, Alis, and -ális

LatinEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Indo-European *-li-, which later dissimilated into an early version of -āris. Perhaps connected to *h₂el- (to grow) (cf. the sense of indolēs, from this root).

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-ālis (neuter -āle); third-declension two-termination suffix

  1. Suffixed to nouns or numerals creating adjectives of relationship.
    anima (breath) + ‎-ālis → ‎animālis (breath vessel)
    crūra (legs) + ‎-ālis → ‎crūrālis (leggings)
    pedēs (feet) + ‎-ālis → ‎pedālis (socks)
    duo (two) + ‎-ālis → ‎duālis (that contains two)
    rēx (king, ruler) + ‎-ālis → ‎rēgālis (regal, royal)
    nātūra (nature) + ‎-ālis → ‎nātūrālis (natural)
  2. Suffixed to adjectives creating adjectives with an intensified meaning.
    aequus (equal in a given quality; even, level) + ‎-ālis → ‎aequālis (equal in every respect, identical in value; uniform, unvarying)
    aeternus (having finite but long duration as if pertaining to an aetas; lasting) + ‎-ālis → ‎aeternālis (having infinite duration; everlasting, infinite)
    līber (free, independent, unrestricted; open, unbiased) + ‎-ālis → ‎līberālis (advocating and promoting personal freedom; bountiful, generous)
    socius (associating, sharing, partaking) + ‎-ālis → ‎sociālis (companionable; allied, confederate)

Usage notesEdit

The suffix -ālis is added (usually, but not exclusively) to a noun or numeral to form an adjective of relationship to that noun. When suffixed to an existing adjective, the effect is and to intensify the adjectival meaning, and often to narrow the semantic field. If the root word ends in -l or -lis, -āris is generally used instead. Sometimes both forms are found; e.g., līneālis and līneāris.

DeclensionEdit

Third-declension two-termination adjective.

Number Singular Plural
Case / Gender Masc./Fem. Neuter Masc./Fem. Neuter
Nominative -ālis -āle -ālēs -ālia
Genitive -ālis -ālium
Dative -ālī -ālibus
Accusative -ālem -āle -ālēs
-ālīs
-ālia
Ablative -ālī -ālibus
Vocative -ālis -āle -ālēs -ālia

Derived termsEdit

DescendantsEdit