Appendix:Finnish verbs


  • Verb are lemmatized under the first infinitive form, the standard dictionary form for Finnish verbs.
    • First infinitives cause gemination at the end of the word (marked by /ˣ/, usually but not necessarily manifesting as a glottal stop; see Wikipedia for more), but this does not necessarily apply to other forms; it does not, for instance, apply to third-person singular present indicative forms, even if the spelling is identical (as they are for some types of verbs).

Personal verb formsEdit



first second third
present ajan I drive ajat you (sg.) drive ajaa he/she/it drives
past ajoin I drove ajoit you (sg.) drove ajoi he/she/it drove
perfect olen ajanut I have driven olet ajanut you (sg.) have driven on ajanut he/she/it has driven
pluperfect olin ajanut I had driven olit ajanut you (sg.) had driven oli ajanut he/she/it had driven
first second third
present en aja I do not drive et aja you (sg.) do not drive ei aja he/she/it does not drive
past en ajanut I did not drive et ajanut you (sg.) did not drive ei ajanut he/she/it did not drive
perfect en ole ajanut I have not driven et ole ajanut you (sg.) have not driven ei ole ajanut he/she/it has not driven
pluperfect en ollut ajanut I had not driven et ollut ajanut you (sg.) had not driven ei ollut ajanut he/she/it had not driven


first second third
present ajamme we drive ajatte you (pl.) drive ajavat they drive
past ajoimme we drove ajoitte you (pl.) drove ajoivat they drove
perfect olemme ajaneet we have driven olette ajaneet you (pl.) have driven ovat ajaneet they have driven
pluperfect olimme ajaneet we had driven olitte ajaneet you (pl.) had driven olivat ajaneet they had driven
first second third
present emme aja we do not drive ette aja you (pl.) do not drive eivät aja they drive
past emme ajaneet we did not drive ette ajaneet you (pl.) did not drive eivät ajaneet they drove
perfect emme ole ajaneet we have not driven ette ole ajaneet you (pl.) have not driven eivät ole ajaneet they have not driven
pluperfect emme olleet ajaneet we had not driven ette olleet ajaneet you (pl.) had not driven eivät olleet ajaneet they had not driven


In colloquial language, the impersonal (or "passive") form has almost completely replaced the first-person plural form: me ajammeme ajetaan.

present ajetaan is (being) driven
past ajettiin was (being) driven
perfect on ajettu has been driven
pluperfect oli ajettu had been driven
present ei ajeta is not (being) driven
past ei ajettu was not (being) driven
perfect ei ole ajettu1 has not been driven
pluperfect ei ollut ajettu2 had not been driven

1 The non-standard "double passive" ei olla ajettu (passive voice ei olla + passive past part. ajettu) is common in colloquial speech.
2 The non-standard "double passive" ei oltu ajettu (passive voice ei oltu + passive past part. ajettu) is common in colloquial speech.


Corresponds to English would (and could): ajaisin jos voisin: I would drive if I could.


first second third
present ajaisin I would drive ajaisit1 you would drive ajaisi he/she/it would drive
perfect olisin ajanut I would have driven olisit ajanut you would have driven olisi ajanut he/she/it would have driven

1 Combined with the enclitic suffix -ko/-kö used in polite requests: Ajaisitko kovempaa?/Voisitko ajaa kovempaa? : Could you drive faster, please? or Haluaisin kupin kahvia. : I would like a cup of coffee.

first second third
present en ajaisi I would not drive et ajaisi you would not drive ei ajaisi he/she/it would not drive
perfect en olisi ajanut I would not have driven et olisi ajanut you would not have driven ei olisi ajanut he/she/it would not have driven


first second third
present ajaisimme we would drive ajaisitte you would drive ajaisivat they would drive
perfect olisimme ajaneet we would have driven olisitte ajaneet you would have driven olisivat ajaneet they would have driven
first second third
present emme ajaisi we would not drive ette ajaisi you would not drive eivät ajaisi they would not drive
perfect emme olisi ajaneet we would not have driven ette olisi ajaneet you would not have driven eivät olisi ajaneet they would not have driven


present ajettaisiin would be driven
perfect olisi ajettu would have been driven
present ei ajettaisi would not be driven
perfect ei olisi ajettu would not have been driven


Used to express commands. In addition, the third-person imperative is colloquially used to express disregard for what one might do.

Note that imperative connegative forms ending in -ko, -kö should not be confused with the (interrogative) clitic -ko.


First-person singular forms do not exist.

second third
present aja drive! ajakoon
perfect ole ajanut have driven! olkoon ajanut
second third
present älä aja do not drive! älköön ajako
perfect älä ole ajanut älköön olko ajanut


first second third
present ajakaamme ajakaa ajakoot
perfect olkaamme ajaneet olkaa ajaneet olkoot ajaneet
first second third
present älkäämme ajako älkää ajako älkööt ajako
perfect älkäämme olko ajaneet älkää olko ajaneet älkööt olko ajaneet


present ajettakoon
perfect olkoon ajettu
present älköön ajettako
perfect älköön olko ajettu


Corresponds to English may, probably, it is possible that etc. Rare in colloquial language, where adverbs like kai, luultavasti, ehkä etc. are used instead: lienee ajanut: on kai ajanut.


first second third
present ajanen I probably drive ajanet you probably drive ajanee he/she/it probably drives
perfect lienen ajanut I probably have driven lienet ajanut you probably have driven lienee ajanut he/she/it probably has driven
first second third
present en ajane et ajane ei ajane
perfect en liene ajanut et liene ajanut ei liene ajanut


first second third
present ajanemme ajanette ajanevat
perfect lienemme ajaneet lienette ajaneet lienevät ajaneet
first second third
present emme ajane ette ajane eivät ajane
perfect emme liene ajaneet ette liene ajaneet eivät liene ajaneet


present ajettaneen
perfect lienee ajettu
present ei ajettane
perfect ei liene ajettu


Similar to imperative. Poetic and archaic. Only a few personal forms are used; third-person forms coincide with those of the imperative mood.


second third
present ajaos ajakoon
perfect ollos ajanut olkoon ajanut
second third
present ällös aja älköön ajako
perfect ällös ollo ajanut älköön olko ajanut


present ajakoot
perfect olkoot ajanut
present älkööt ajako
perfect älkööt olko ajanut


Combination of conditional and potential: ajan (I drive) → ajaneisin (I probably would drive). Rare and poetic; used in the Finnish national epic Kalevala.

Nominal verb formsEdit


infinitive voice case form (approximate) translation notes
I ajaa to drive
I (long)1 ajaakseni For the purpose of me driving, in order for me to drive
ajaaksesi for the purpose of you driving, in order for you to drive (singular)
ajaakseen for the purpose of him/her driving, in order for him/her to drive
ajaaksemme for the purpose of us driving, in order for us to drive
ajaaksenne for the purpose of you driving, in order for you to drive (plural)
ajaakseen for the purpose of them driving, in order for them to drive
II active inessive ajaessa when/while driving, as one is driving/as one drives subject in the genitive case, (possible) object in the partitive case
instructive ajaen3 while/by driving used as part of a larger verb phrase, so the subject is not directly mentioned. (possible) object in the partitive case
passive inessive ajettaessa when one drives X; when sb/sth is being driven (possible) object in the partitive case
III active inessive ajamassa olin ajamassa: I was driving most often used with olla
elative ajamasta lakkasin ajamasta: I stopped driving most often used with tulla ("to come from doing X") or with verbs of stopping or ceasing
illative ajamaan lähdin ajamaan: I began driving, I went to drive most often used with mennä (to go), lähteä (to begin, go) or with verbs of starting or beginning
adessive ajamalla by driving object in accusative or partitive
abessive ajamatta without driving; olin ajamatta viikon: I did not drive for a week, tein sen ajamatta: I did it without driving
instructive ajaman sinun on ajaman: you must drive dated
passive instructive ajettaman tätä autoa on ajettaman: one has to drive this car dated
IV nominative ajaminen2 sinun on ajaminen: you must drive dated
partitive ajamista4 sinne ei ole ajamista: one must not drive there dated
V1 ajamaisillani olin ajamaisillani: I was about to drive literary
ajamaisillasi were about to drive (singular) literary
ajamaisillaan ...he/she was about to drive literary
ajamaisillamme ...we were about to drive literary
ajamaisillanne were about to drive (plural) literary
ajamaisillaan ...they were about to drive literary
1 Always contains a personal/possessive suffix.
2 Do not confuse with verbal nouns constructed with the suffix -minen: ajaminen (driving, a gerund), with which the nominative and partitive (singular) forms align.
3 Also used with a possessive suffix with a modal sense ("as one X"), although this use is now quite formal.
Tein sen tieteni.I did it knowingly (as I knew).
4 Also used with a possessive suffix and with the same verb in a finite form to mean that something is being done continuously/for a long time:
Hän ajoi ajamistaan.He drove and drove.


All participles can be inflected and used like adjectives. Many participles are in fact used as independent adjectives: syötävä: edible, kuollut: dead etc.

Active present participleEdit

Corresponds to English -ing before a noun: kovaa ajava auto: fast driving car. The construct on + active present participle corresponds to English "shall" in poetic sense: hän on huomenna ajava autoa : he shall drive the car tomorrow.

case singular plural
nominative ajava ajavat
genitive ajavan ajavien
partitive ajavaa ajavia
accusative ajava ajavat
inessive ajavassa ajavissa
elative ajavasta ajavista
illative ajavaan ajaviin
adessive ajavalla ajavilla
ablative ajavalta ajavilta
allative ajavalle ajaville
essive ajavana ajavina
translative ajavaksi ajaviksi
instructive ajavin
abessive ajavatta ajavitta
comitative ajavine

Passive present participleEdit

Corresponds to English -able/-ible before noun: ajettava auto: drivable car. Also used in on + passive present participle to denote obligation: minun on ajettava autoa: I must drive the car.

case singular plural
nominative ajettava ajettavat
genitive ajettavan ajettavien
partitive ajettavaa ajettavia
accusative ajettava ajettavat
inessive ajettavassa ajettavissa
elative ajettavasta ajettavista
illative ajettavaan ajettaviin
adessive ajettavalla ajettavilla
ablative ajettavalta ajettavilta
allative ajettavalle ajettaville
essive ajettavana ajettavina
translative ajettavaksi ajettaviksi
instructive ajettavin
abessive ajettavatta ajettavitta
comitative ajettavine

Active past participleEdit

Used to build active compound tenses, corresponds to English past participle: olen ajanut: I have driven; ohitsemme ajanut auto kääntyi vasemmalle: the car that passed us turned left.

case singular plural
nominative ajanut ajaneet
genitive ajaneen ajaneiden
partitive ajanutta ajaneita
accusative ajanut ajaneet
inessive ajaneessa ajaneissa
elative ajaneesta ajaneista
illative ajaneeseen ajaneisiin
adessive ajaneella ajaneilla
ablative ajaneelta ajaneilta
allative ajaneelle ajaneille
essive ajaneena ajaneina
translative ajaneeksi ajaneiksi
instructive ajanein
abessive ajaneetta ajaneitta
comitative ajaneine

Passive past participleEdit

Used to build passive compound tenses. When used as an adjective, corresponds to adjective-like English past participles. tätä autoa on ajettu: this car has been driven

case singular plural
nominative ajettu ajetut
genitive ajetun ajettujen
partitive ajettua ajettuja
accusative ajettu ajetut
inessive ajetussa ajetuissa
elative ajetusta ajetuista
illative ajettun ajettuihin
adessive ajetulla ajetuilla
ablative ajetulta ajetuilta
allative ajetulle ajetuille
essive ajettuna ajettuina
translative ajetuksi ajetuiksi
instructive ajetuin
abessive ajetutta ajetuitta
comitative ajettuine

Agent participleEdit

Used to denote the object of action; usually with a possessive suffix: minun ajamani auto: the car I drove/have driven. Not used with all verbs.

case singular plural
nominative ajama ajamat
genitive ajaman ajamien
partitive ajamaa ajamia
accusative ajama ajamat
inessive ajamassa ajamissa
elative ajamasta ajamista
illative ajamaan ajamiin
adessive ajamalla ajamilla
ablative ajamalta ajamilta
allative ajamalle ajamille
essive ajamana ajamina
translative ajamaksi ajamiksi
instructive ajamin
abessive ajamatta ajamitta
comitative ajamine

Negative participleEdit

Negation of the other participles, corresponds to English un-/not + past participle.

case singular plural
nominative ajamaton ajamattomat
genitive ajamattoman ajamattomien
partitive ajamatonta ajamattomia
accusative ajamaton ajamattomat
inessive ajamattomassa ajamattomissa
elative ajamattomasta ajamattomista
illative ajamattomaan ajamattomiin
adessive ajamattomalla ajamattomilla
ablative ajamattomalta ajamattomilta
allative ajamattomalle ajamattomille
essive ajamattomana ajamattomina
translative ajamattomaksi ajamattomiksi
instructive ajamattomin
abessive ajamattomatta ajamattomitta
comitative ajamattomine

Negative verbsEdit

The verb ei is used to express negation. It inflects in person, number and mood (indicative or imperative); all forms are listed here. The indicative forms begin with e and express denial (you are not), while the imperative forms begin with ä and express prohibition (don't be!). ei does not have infinitive forms. It is also used to change the meaning of some pronouns, such as kukaan and mikään and adverbs, such as koskaan, ikinä, välttämättä.