Appendix:Proto-Austronesian reconstructions

The Proto-Austronesian reconstructions in this appendix are from the Austronesian Comparative Dictionary by Blust & Trussel (2020).[1]

Note that infixes are enclosed by <>.

No. Proto-Austronesian Gloss
10 *aba₁ father
25 *aCab a cover
26 *aCas high, tall
28 *i aCas above, on top
33 *aCay death
35 *ka-aCay kill (?)
36 *ka-aCay-an lose someone through death (?)
37 *ma-aCay die; dead; eclipse of sun or moon
55 *pa-aCay kill
59 *p-aCay-en be killed
60 *pa-p-aCay kill
64 *m<in>aCay burial ground (?)
72 *naRa to wait
83 *ai₂ interjection, exclamation of surprise, incredulity, etc.
90 *aku 1sg nominative; I
92 *k-aku 1sg oblique: to me, for me
96 *alap fetch, get, take
99 *ma-alap be taken
104 *in-alap that which has been taken; was taken by
108 *alaq₁ fetch, get, take
113 *um-alaq fetch, get, take
114 *alaq-en be taken
118 *ala take, get, fetch, obtain; marry
126 *aluja to paddle
127 *pa-aluja to paddle
134 *amax father
135 *da-amax father
136 *maR-amax to be father and child
137 *si amax father (ref.)
138 *ta-amax father (ref.)
180 *amin all; finished
183 *aNak child, offspring; son, daughter; interest on a loan
186 *aN-aNak child
192 *ma-anak (gloss uncertain)
199 *maRe-anak parent and child
234 *aNay insect of the order Isoptera: termite, white ant
254 *-an verbal suffix marking locative voice; nominal suffix marking location
272 *apuR betel chew
273 *apu grandparent/grandchild (reciprocal)
297 *aRi come; toward the speaker; let’s go!
299 *um-aRi to come
305 *asa₁ one
320 *asu₁ dog
333 *ata 1pl. incl. possessive pronoun: our
351 *au₂ yes
369 *aya₁ exclamation of annoyance, surprise, etc.
370 *aya₂ (gloss uncertain)
381 *a₄ hesitation particle
382 *a₅ ligature
383 *-a₁ imperative suffix
385 *ni-a 3sg. agent/possessor
387 *-a₃ subjunctive suffix
428 *babaw₃ upper surface, top; highlands; on, upon, over, above
430 *i babaw above, on top of
433 *baba₁ carry a person pick-a-back; ride pick-a-back
441 *babuy₃ pig
442 *babuy-an pigpen, pigsty, piggery
461 *baSaq a flood; to overflow, be in flood
477 *bakbak₂ sound of heavy clapping or pounding, smacking sound
480 *bakes₁ belt; tie around the waist
484 *bakuŋ₁ a lily-like plant: Crinum asiaticum L.
496 *balalaCuk a bird: the woodpecker
519 *balaŋa shallow earthenware cooking pot or pan
528 *balbal₁ beating stick; to hit, beat (esp. clothes in washing them)
531 *bales₁ to answer, retaliate; reciprocate good or evil
559 *baliw₂ return
578 *baluN bind, bundle
611 *baNaR a thorny vine: Smilax spp.
614 *baNaS male (of animals)
619 *baNaw a thorny vine: Smilax spp.
627 *baNiC to skin, flay
645 *baqeRuh new; bachelor
652 *baRah ember, glowing coal
662 *baRaq₁ lung
666 *baRat₁ crossbeam
668 *barat₁ crossbeam
696 *baReq abscess, boil, swelling on the body
698 *baRija weaver's sword (lath used to beat in and tighten the woof)
702 *baRiuS typhoon
709 *baRuj a dove: probably Ducula spp.
720 *basbas₁ hit, strike
721 *basbas₂ sprinkle
754 *bañaw wash the body
757 *ma-bañaw wash the body
760 *baŋaw paddy bug, foul-smelling insect that preys on rice in the field
766 *baŋbaŋ₂ butterfly, moth
773 *baŋbaŋ₆ loud resounding sound
776 *baŋeliS tusk; canine tooth
787 *baŋuN wake up, get out of bed
801 *baŋ(e)qeR₁ rotten smell, stench
804 *baŋeSiS fragrant
811 *beCeŋ millet sp., probably foxtail millet: Setaria italica
813 *beCik tattoo
815 *b<in>eCik tattooed, marked with a design
820 *beCu callus, blister
824 *bedul swelling of the body
830 *bejbej₁ wrap around repeatedly, bind by wrapping; bundle of wrapped material
842 *bekas₁ to spring a trap
843 *bekas₂ swift, fast
855 *bekbek₂ sound of breaking, etc.
868 *bekuC to bend over, bend down (of a person); hunchbacked
879 *belaq part of something split
881 *b<in>elaq to have been split, cloven in two
882 *ma-belaq be split, in two
909 *beli to buy
945 *beNuC pull out, extract
950 *beRas rice between harvesting and cooking; husked rice
952 *beRas-an container in which rice is stored
957 *beRay give
961 *pa-beRay to give
965 *beRek domesticated pig
970 *beReqaŋ molar tooth
973 *beriq split, tear open
993 *beRŋaw bluebottle, large fly
998 *beRŋi-n night
1011 *besuR satisfied from having eaten enough, satiated
1016 *ma-besuR satiated, full from eating
1019 *bes whizzing sound
1020 *betak crack, split open (as dry ground)
1035 *beties calf of the leg
1037 *betik₁ snap the fingers; flick with the finger, fillip
1046 *betuŋ₁ bamboo of very large diameter, probably Dendrocalamus sp.
1061 *beŋbeŋ₁ blocked, as by a wall or curtain
1064 *beŋbeŋ₂ buzz, hum
1065 *b<aR>eŋbeŋ buzzing, droning, humming
1096 *biaC draw a bow to its full extent
1106 *biCuka stomach
1148 *bilaŋ₁ to count, calculate; hold valuable
1190 *bineSiq seed set aside for the next planting
1194 *biNiC hold in the hand
1213 *biqiR lopsided, off-balance
1215 *biqut curved, crooked, bent
1218 *biRaq₁ wild taro, elephant's ear or itching taro, Alocasia spp.
1223 *biRaSu cane grass, Miscanthus sp.
1224 *biRaS roe, fish eggs
1234 *biraŋ anger, angry
1235 *biRbiR lip
1240 *birbir₂ shiver, shake, tremble
1242 *biriC to tear, rip
1269 *bisuR satisfied from having eaten enough, satiated
1278 *bitbit₁ pull at some part of the body
1295 *bituqen star
1309 *biŋiC moody, irritable
1325 *buak bubbling up (as spring water)
1327 *bual₁ spring, source of fresh water
1329 *buaq fruit
1336 *maR-buaq bear fruit
1355 *buay₂ (gloss uncertain)
1356 *bua₁ foam, bubbles, froth
1365 *bubuR₁ jellyfish
1366 *bubu₂ conical bamboo basket trap for fish
1370 *bubu₆ grandparent/grandchild (reciprocal term of address)
1380 *buCaq foam, froth
1381 *buCa mote in the eye; blind; blindness
1386 *buCa-en maCa get a mote in the eye
1389 *ma-buCa blind
1393 *buCbuC pull up (as weeds), pluck (as feathers)
1401 *buCuq testicles
1405 *buCu callus, corn; blister
1449 *buhaŋ hole, pit
1450 *buhet squirrel
1466 *bujeq₁ foam, bubbles, lather, scum, froth
1499 *bukeS head hair
1506 *bukij mountain; forested inland mountain areas
1533 *bulaN moon, month; menstruation
1552 *bulaR₁ cataract of the eye; hazy or blurred vision
1560 *bulaw golden colored
1561 *bulaw-an gold
1568 *bulbul dust, pulverized stone
1570 *buled₁ mountain
1580 *bulilik lizard sp.
1591 *buli- prefix of the *qali, *kali- series
1597 *buluN companion
1601 *buluq₂ type of slender bamboo; Schizostachyum spp.
1632 *bunabun rice seedling
1638 *buNbuN fontanelle; crown of the head
1647 *buNi to hide, conceal
1681 *buNuq₁ a constellation: the Pleiades
1684 *buNuq₂ throw at, hit with a projectile
1710 *buqaya crocodile
1737 *buRaw drive off, chase away, expel
1741 *ma-buRaw driven away, chased off
1751 *buReS spray water from the mouth
1770 *buRuk rotten meat; addled eggs; bad character
1771 *b<in>uRuk to have become rotten
1786 *buSuk drunkenness, intoxication
1788 *ma-buSuk drunk, intoxicated
1796 *busuR₁ enemy
1797 *busuR₂ hunting bow
1850 *buuŋ buzzing or humming sound
1913 *buŋuR tree sp.
1935 *CabCab clap, beat, hack
1936 *CaCaw pupil of the eye
1937 *Cakaw steal
1940 *ma-Cakaw to steal
1948 *C<in>akaw what is stolen, stolen goods; was stolen (past tense of direct passive)
1950 *Cakaw-an (gloss uncertain)
1955 *Caki feces, excreta
1957 *C<um>aki defecate
1959 *CaliS rope, cord, twine, string
1965 *C<in>aliS was made into rope; what was made into rope
1967 *C<um>aliS to tie with rope, fasten with rope
1973 *Caliŋa ear
1975 *Caliŋa nu kaSiw wood ear, semicircular edible fungus which grows on tree trunks
1977 *CaluN fallow land; secondary forest
1981 *Capa to smoke fish or meat for preservation
1986 *C<in>apa smoked fish or meat
1988 *Capaŋ a patch, as on clothing
1990 *Capel a patch; to patch
1992 *tapeS winnow
1995 *tapeS-i to winnow
1997 *CaqiS to sew
1999 *Ca-CaqiS thread used for sewing (?)
2000 *CaqiS-an place of sewing
2002 *C<um>aqiS to sew
2003 *C<in>aqiS work produced by sewing or stitching
2004 *Caqi feces, excrement
2006 *C<in>aqi small intestine
2008 *C<um>aqi to defecate
2011 *CaSaw open-air; outdoors
2013 *ka-CaSaw-an (gloss uncertain)
2014 *Cau person, human being
2016 *ka-Cau-an (gloss uncertain)
2018 *k<in>a-Cau-an nature, character
2021 *Cau Cau (gloss uncertain)
2023 *Cawa to laugh
2025 *Ca-Cawa to laugh
2028 *ma-Cawa to laugh
2032 *Cazem sharp (of point or blade)
2037 *Caŋila ear
2039 *Caŋis weep, cry; mourn; to beseech
2041 *ma-Caŋis tearful, crying easily
2044 *pa-Caŋis to make someone cry; to let someone cry
2048 *Cebak smack against
2050 *Cebuj natural spring, fresh water spring
2052 *Cebuk thud
2054 *CebuS sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum
2056 *CegCeg beat, pound, hit
2059 *CekCek pierce, penetrate
2063 *Celaq crack, split, fissure
2065 *CelCel beat, pound
2069 *Cenek thorn
2072 *CeRab a belch
2077 *Cesek insert, pierce, penetrate
2083 *Cidu spoon, ladle, dipper
2085 *tiktik₁ to tap, strike lightly on a hard surface
2088 *Cikel return, go back
2090 *tik₁ sound of tapping or flicking (of finger, small implement, etc.) against something
2094 *Ciqaw fish sp.
2098 *CiŋaS food particles caught between the teeth
2106 *Cubuq plant sprout
2108 *C<um>ubuq to sprout, to grow
2113 *CugCug₁ hit something against something else
2118 *Cumek pulverize; crumble
2119 *CumeS clothes louse; body louse
2122 *CuNuh roast food over a fire
2125 *C<in>uNuh be roasted (by someone)
2127 *C<um>uNuh to roast (intr.)
2129 *CuNuh-an to roast
2130 *tunuh-an to roast
2131 *ki-CuNuh (gloss uncertain)
2132 *ki-tunuh (gloss uncertain)
2133 *ma-CuNuh roasted
2134 *ma-tunuh roasted
2143 *CuqelaN condylar bone; bone of fauna exclusive of fish
2146 *Curis scratch a line
2149 *CuSuR string together, as beads
2152 *CuSuR-en be strung, be skewered
2153 *C<um>uSuR to string beads, etc.
2168 *-Cu 2pl deixis and spatio-temporal reference: that; there, then
2172 *i-Cu that (2p)
2181 *dajam accustomed to, tame
2182 *ma-dajam accustomed to, tame
2183 *dajem chills, as of malaria
2184 *ma-dajem chills, as of malaria
2186 *dakuC snatch, grab
2192 *ma-dalis smooth, slippery
2197 *daqaNi day
2200 *daReq soil, probably clay
2202 *daRiŋ groan, moan
2203 *daSdaS chest (anat.)
2210 *dapa palm of the hand
2216 *debdeb chest
2222 *dekep embrace
2223 *dekiŋ to bark, of a deer
2226 *deles bowstring
2227 *demdem₁ brood, hold a grudge, remember, keep still
2230 *depuŋ venomous snake
2232 *deRdeR thunder
2237 *deruŋ deep booming sound
2238 *deRuŋ₁ distant rolling thunder
2248 *dikeC sticky, adhesive
2249 *dikit little, few, small in amount
2256 *disdis cut, slice
2258 *diteq sticky substance
2269 *duhduh thunder
2284 *du(ŋ)kuŋ bend, curve
2298 *edem₂ soak, dye
2361 *enem six
2366 *maka-enem six times (frequentative multiplicative)
2370 *paR-enem-en do six times
2376 *a-enem six (of humans)
2381 *-en verbal suffix marking patient or undergoer voice; nominal suffix marking product of an action or thing affected by an action
2406 *esa one
2407 *a-esa one (of humans)
2489 *gemel take in the hand, clasp, grasp
2500 *gereC slit an animal's throat
2501 *gerger₁ shake, shiver, tremble
2503 *geriC sound of ripping, gnawing, etc.
2519 *giRiŋ ringing sound
2520 *gisgis₁ rub, scrape against
2523 *guCguC₁ pluck, pull out
2524 *gutgut₁ front teeth, incisors
2526 *gurgur₁ sound of boiling water
2531 *gusgus to scrape, scratch, rub
2532 *gusi gums
2537 *guŋguŋ deep resounding sound
2633 *haŋut smell, odor
2648 *ma-hemis sweet
2691 *pa-hinzam lend
2705 *hisep suck, inhale
2730 *hukaq loosen, open
2775 *ian₂ dwell, reside, live in a place
2785 *ia₁ 3sg. personal pronoun: he, she; him, her, it
2786 *si ia₁ 3sg. personal pronoun: he, she, it
2788 *si ia₂ demonstrative pronoun and adverb: this, here; that, there
2792 *ibaS companion, close relative, other one
2814 *idas₁ affine of Ego's generation
2827 *ijan when?
2836 *Sika- prefix for ordinal numbers
2839 *ikuD to follow
2840 *ikuR tail
2865 *iluR₂ river channel
2887 *ina mother, mother's sister
2896 *iná-q mother, mother's sister (address, vocative)
2898 *maR-ina to be mother and child
2901 *ta-ina mother (ref.)
2930 *inu where?
2934 *<in> perfective marker
2941 *ipit near, come near; edge, border
2956 *iRik thresh with the feet (as rice)
2965 *isa₁ one
2968 *isa-ŋa the remaining one
2969 *isa isa distributive; one-by-one, one at a time
2971 *paR-isa-an to unite, combine in one
2978 *iSeq urine, urinate
2980 *iSiq urine, urinate
2985 *isi₅ flesh (of humans, animals, fruits, tubers); contents; blade of a knife; inhabitants, residents
2999 *iSu 2sg. personal pronoun: you
3004 *ita₁ we (incl.)
3008 *iten 1p plural absolute possessive pronoun: ours (incl.)
3029 *i₁ exclamation of wonder, disgust, etc.
3030 *i₂ generic marker of location in space or time
3031 *i₃ personal article
3033 *-i₁ imperative suffix
3060 *iŋsuŋ wooden rice mortar
3067 *kaCu bring, carry
3069 *gaRaŋ small edible freshwater crab
3073 *kak sound of a cackle, loud laugh, etc.
3080 *kalaw₁ bird sp.
3084 *kali₁ canal, ditch
3089 *kamaya plant sp.: Diospyros discolor
3090 *kamay hand
3101 *kaNasay a fish: the mullet
3111 *kapkap feel in the dark, grope
3120 *karkar scratch up the earth, as a fowl
3123 *kaRus scrape
3124 *karut₁ scrape, rasp
3130 *kaS(e)pal thick, of solid objects
3145 *ka-₁ marker of past time in temporal expressions
3146 *ka₁ conjunctive particle, and
3147 *ka₂ conditional, if
3156 *kedip to blink
3158 *kedi small in size or amount
3167 *kelip to blink
3173 *keNa be ensnared, caught in a trap; suffer, undergo, be struck by something; be entrapped or deceived; hit the mark, be ‘on target’, correct, right, true
3182 *keRaŋ₂ scab, crust on a wound
3184 *keriq chattering, crying of monkeys
3186 *keRkeR shake, tremble
3190 *keRuŋ resounding sound
3192 *keskes₁ scratch, scrape
3196 *ketil pinch off
3199 *kezem close the eyes
3203 *keŋkeŋ₁ hollow, resounding sound
3214 *kiaw puling sound of a bird
3215 *kiCiŋ body part
3217 *kidiq to tickle
3229 *kiluŋ curved; bay
3239 *kiRus scrape
3240 *kiSkiS scrape off
3248 *kiŋkiŋ₁ ringing sound
3257 *kuan₁ hamlet; kin-based residential unit
3258 *kuaw kind of bird and the sound of its call
3259 *kudem darkened by clouds, overcast
3260 *kudis scurfy skin disease; scabies
3262 *kudkud hoof, lower leg of an ungulate
3280 *kupit press together, close tightly
3290 *kuris₁ scurfy skin disease; scabies
3299 *kuSa work
3301 *kuSkuS₂ scrape
3302 *k<ar>uSkuS scrape, scratch something from a surface
3322 *ku(ŋ)kuŋ deep resonant sound; name of a bird with deep resonant cry
3343 *lama₂ old, former
3347 *lamlam₁ impetuous
3356 *laplap loose (as of clothing)
3360 *laRaŋ to forbid
3361 *laRiw run, run away, flee, escape
3362 *ma-laRiw run, run away, flee
3371 *lawas₁ wide, broad
3373 *lawa₁ wide
3378 *layap to fly
3390 *la(n)tuk curved, bowed
3393 *laŋu vertigo
3394 *ma-laŋu dizzy, drunk
3395 *laŋ(e)si unpleasant odor
3404 *lecik fly off, of solid bits or water droplets
3412 *lemek₁ soft
3418 *lemlem dark, of weather; overcast
3423 *lepaw₁ hut
3438 *lezep submerge, disappear under water
3452 *lekab open, uncover
3472 *linuR earthquake
3475 *liNuŋ calm, tranquil, of the surface of water
3481 *liuS circumambulate, circumvent
3486 *liŋaw₁ shadow
3518 *lukuC parasitic plant sp.
3531 *luem ripe
3533 *lupaS spit, spit out
3539 *Nusuŋ rice mortar
3563 *maliqi pregnant
3571 *manu interrogative marker: which?
3572 *maS and
3584 *mesmes grasp, grip, squeeze
3630 *mula to plant
3631 *mulmul hold in the mouth and suck
3635 *muRmuR gargle, rinse the mouth
3639 *Nabek breakers, surf, waves
3641 *najam accustomed to, familiar with; tame
3642 *ma-najam accustomed to, familiar with; tame
3644 *Nali cicada
3650 *nasuk cook by boiling
3652 *Na₁ conjunction: and
3654 *na₂ linker marking emphatic attribution
3655 *-na distal spatio-temporal deixis: that, there; then
3662 *nemnem think
3664 *NeŋNeŋ stare, look fixedly
3666 *Neŋ look, see
3674 *Niteq sap of a tree or plant
3677 *-ni proximal spatio-temporal deixis: this, here; now
3678 *di-ni here
3679 *i-ni this, here
3680 *ia-ni this; here
3682 *qa-ni this; here
3687 *-nu₁ marker of uncertainty
3700 *i-nu place which is unknown or cannot be remembered: where?
3701 *ka-nu₁ interrogative; probably 'when?'
3703 *na-nu what(?)
3707 *Nuka wound
3708 *ma-Nuka wounded
3715 *nu₁ if, when (in future)
3732 *paCak spotted, speckled, as the skin of an animal
3733 *pacek wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail or dowel
3767 *paleCuk shoot, sound of shooting
3772 *paliq₁ an internal organ, probably spleen or pancreas
3774 *paliSi taboo, ritual restriction; purifying rite
3775 *paliSi-en be tabooed (?)
3802 *paNaw go, walk away, depart
3807 *paNij wing
3829 *paqpaq₁ chew
3841 *paRaw hoarse
3845 *paRa₁ storage shelf; attic, loft
3859 *paRiS stingray
3864 *pariuk earthenware cooking pot
3874 *paR-₂ divide into x (x = numeral)
3875 *pasaqaN shoulder pole; carry with a shoulder pole
3877 *paspas₁ beat out, thresh
3878 *pasu₁ cheek bone
3894 *paŋa₁ fork of a branch; any forked structure; bifurcation
3895 *paŋaq forked, pronged
3911 *pa(n)tuk₂ to knock, strike against
3915 *paŋudaN pandanus
3919 *peCik snap, as the fingers or a slingshot
3920 *pedek wink, blink
3922 *pedped₁ press together, pack solid
3929 *pekpek₁ beat, hit
3934 *pelus slip off
3938 *perus slip or slide off
3941 *pespes squeeze, massage
3969 *pikpik sound of patting or tapping
3998 *piuk dent, dimple
4001 *piŋi cheek
4013 *puCaq foam, froth, lather
4019 *puduN ball of thread; spool
4039 *puluC a plant: Urena lobata
4040 *pulu₁ handle
4058 *puRuq a bird, the quail
4063 *puteq gummy secretion
4081 *puŋuN bunch, cluster (of grain, fruit, areca nuts, etc.)
4087 *qabaRa₁ shoulder
4089 *qabaRa-an shoulder (?)
4091 *qabaS notch cut in a tree
4097 *qabaŋ₁ boat, canoe
4114 *qabu ash, cinder, powder
4121 *qabu-an place of ashes; hearth
4123 *qaCay liver
4137 *qaCeb deadfall trap to catch small mammals
4138 *qaCipa soft-shelled turtle
4140 *qaCi- prefix variant of the *qali/kali- set
4141 *qaCi ebb, of water in streams
4144 *ma-qaCi ebb, of water in streams; low tide
4148 *qajaw day
4150 *ma-qajaw sunny, hot
4151 *q<um>ajaw to shine, of the sun
4154 *qalad fence, wall
4156 *qaleb knee
4163 *qalep beckon, wave
4174 *qali-puju hair whorl
4183 *qaluR₁ current, deep channel in the middle of a river
4186 *qalu-Sipan centipede
4198 *qamiS north wind
4199 *qamiS-an north; winter
4205 *qanibuŋ fruit-bearing bush or tree
4207 *qaNiCu ghost, spirit of the dead; owl
4212 *qaNiC animal skin, hide, leather
4214 *q<um>aNiC to skin an animal
4225 *qaniS harvest; to harvest
4227 *maR-qani harvest; to harvest
4230 *qaNi- variant of the *qali/kali- prefix
4231 *qaNi weaving spindle
4232 *qani₁ proximal deictic: this
4233 *qaNiŋu 'shadow, reflection
4241 *qaNuaŋ large ruminant species: carabao, water buffalo (?)
4243 *qaNuNaŋ a tree: Cordia dichotoma
4247 *qanup to hunt wild game
4248 *q<um>aNup to hunt, go hunting
4249 *qaNup-an hunting ground, hunting territory
4251 *qaNup-en what is hunted, wild game
4258 *qapejux gall, gall bladder, bile
4264 *qapid braid, twine
4266 *qapucuk peak of a mountain
4267 *qapuR lime, calcium
4273 *qaqay foot, leg
4276 *qaRaw snatch, take away by force, rob
4280 *qaRem pangolin, scaly anteater
4286 *qaRsem sourness, acidity
4294 *qasawa spouse: husband, wife
4302 *qaseb smoke
4303 *qaSelu pestle
4304 *qasepa astringent
4308 *qasiN saltiness, salty taste
4325 *qasiRa salt
4327 *qasiRa-en anything which has been salted
4340 *qataq eat something raw
4341 *ma-qataq raw, unripe
4357 *qatimela flea
4359 *qatip₁ part of the loom
4361 *qatip-an part of the loom
4373 *qauR bamboo sp.
4377 *qauŋ to howl, of a dog
4384 *qawqaw to bark, of a dog
4386 *qayam₁ bird
4395 *qa₁ locative particle
4398 *qaŋeliC stench of burning substances
4399 *qaŋeRiS stench of spoiling fish
4400 *qaŋeRu stench of spoiled or souring organic matter
4402 *qaŋeseR stench of urine
4403 *qaŋeSit stench, musky odor of an animal
4410 *qaŋqaŋ barking of a dog
4411 *q<um>aŋqaŋ to bark, of a dog
4412 *qañud drift on a current, carried away by flowing water
4416 *pa-añud set adrift
4421 *qebel smoke
4422 *qeCah rice husk, rice bran
4424 *qeCeŋ obstruction, barrier
4426 *qeCuR sexual arousal, sexual excitement
4427 *qedet press down on
4432 *qekuŋ owl
4436 *qeleC interval, intervening space
4446 *qemin all
4449 *qemqem hold in the closed mouth
4450 *qenay sand
4456 *qeNeb₁ to close, to shut; door
4459 *qeNeb₂ spread all over
4465 *qeNuR animal trail
4467 *qenuR-an₁ animal haunt, place frequented by animals
4472 *qepit squeeze, press between
4478 *qesak ripe; cooked; ready to eat
4481 *qesep sip, suck
4482 *q<um>esep suck
4483 *qesir hiss, sizzle
4485 *qetaq eat something raw
4488 *ma-qetaq raw, unripe, green (fruit), uncooked
4497 *qetut fart, flatulence
4502 *pa-qetut to fart, break wind
4504 *q<um>etut to fart, break wind
4516 *qiaw animal cry
4517 *qia exclamation (probably of affirmation or confirmation)
4521 *qiCeluR egg
4525 *qiCqiC nibble off, gnaw off
4530 *qidus spoon, ladle
4532 *qiduS spoon, ladle
4535 *qijap resent, blame; resentment, jealousy
4548 *qiluS wipe after defecating
4554 *qiNeb door
4555 *qinep lie down to sleep
4560 *qiNuaŋ large ruminant species
4563 *qipit pincer of crustaceans; tongs; press together, pinch, squeeze
4565 *qipiŋ incline one's head to the side
4576 *qiRik thresh with the feet, as rice
4586 *qiSu shark
4593 *qitik₁ small, little; few
4598 *qiut copulate, have sexual intercourse
4599 *qiuŋ₁ natural sound
4614 *quay rattan, Calamus sp.
4618 *quaŋ₁ empty, vacant
4619 *quaŋ₂ howling or yelping of a dog
4621 *qubaN gray hair
4630 *quCaN scrub-land, bush
4632 *qudaŋ shrimp, crayfish, lobster
4634 *qudem dark, dull (of light or color)
4636 *qudip₁ life, alive
4639 *ka-qudip-an livelihood
4641 *pa-qudip care for, raise (an animal)
4646 *qujiŋ charcoal
4651 *qukut hunched over, bowed (as with age)
4656 *qulej type of small worm
4660 *qules₁ clothing
4673 *quluh head
4682 *qulu qulu head-end, upper part
4687 *qumah swidden, work a swidden
4691 *pa-qumah-an (gloss uncertain)
4694 *q<in>umah (gloss uncertain)
4696 *quman repeat oneself monotonously
4701 *qumaŋ hermit crab
4710 *qumuR fill the mouth with food or water
4722 *quNuNaŋ tree with sticky fruits: Cordia spp.
4723 *quNuq beads, necklace of beads
4729 *qupuŋ bunch, cluster
4734 *quriaw noise, clamor
4743 *quSeNap fish scale
4748 *quSaw thirst
4749 *quSaw-an thirsty
4750 *ma-quSaw thirsty
4751 *quSeŋeC anger, angry
4753 *quSuŋ edible mushroom (generic)
4768 *qutiN penis
4779 *quzaN rain
4783 *ma-quzaN rainy
4787 *pa-quzaN (gloss uncertain)
4788 *q<um>uzaN to rain; it is raining
4790 *quzan-en to be rained on
4799 *qu₂ grammatical particle
4806 *Rabiqi late afternoon, evening; evening meal
4813 *rakat walk
4819 *Rames squeeze, knead
4833 *rauC peel rattan, bamboo
4839 *rawraw to rinse
4867 *Reken coiled base on which hot cooking pots are set
4868 *reken coiled base on which hot cooking pots are set
4886 *reŋeC angry, annoyed
4887 *reŋiC grimace at pain
4900 *Riaq sword grass: Imperata cylindrica
4902 *RibaS demolish
4914 *Riqek thresh grain by trampling
4938 *RuqaNay male
4951 *SabaN cloth used to carry a child on the back
4953 *SabaRat south wind (?)
4958 *Sabij twins of the same sex
4960 *Sabit long cloth wrapped around body and used for carrying
4964 *SadiRi housepost
4968 *Sadu many, much, plenty
4976 *Sajek smell; to smell (transitive)
4981 *Sajek-en to smell
4982 *sakal restraining device on animals
4984 *sakat rise, climb up
4986 *saksak₁ hack, chop into pieces
4988 *SakuC transport piecemeal; tranport through repeated trips
4993 *Salas forest, wilderness, woods
5003 *saliw buy, sell
5016 *SapaR unroll a mat, spread out a mat
5018 *S<um>apaR unroll, spread out a mat
5020 *sapaw field hut
5021 *Sapejiq smarting, stinging pain
5023 *Sapit press together, press between two surfaces
5031 *SapSap feel, grope
5034 *SapuSap feel, grope
5036 *Sapuy fire
5048 *S<um>apuy (gloss uncertain)
5053 *saqsaq bamboo which has been split and flattened
5061 *SaRuŋ snore, groan, etc.
5064 *Sasak ripe; cooked
5066 *ma-Sasak ripe; cooked
5067 *Sasaq whet, sharpen
5073 *Sasaq-an whetstone, grindstone
5077 *SateD accompany, escort; send, return
5079 *ma-SateD escort, accompany
5081 *pa-SateD send (?)
5084 *S<um>ateD accompany, escort
5086 *SateD-an escort, accompany (imperative)
5089 *Sauni in a little while, momentarily, later
5091 *Sawak waist, back of the waist
5098 *SawSaw wash, rinse
5100 *Saw question particle
5105 *Sa₁ ligature
5107 *Sa₂ locative particle
5118 *saŋeday lean or rest on
5124 *SebaN carry a child with a carrying cloth
5126 *S<in>ebaN what is carried on the back
5128 *SebuC pluck, pull up (as weeds)
5130 *sebuS douse a fire, extinguish a fire with water; to hiss, as water on fire’
5134 *sedu hiccough
5136 *sejep enter, penetrate
5137 *Sekak to crow, to caw
5140 *sekel bend, bow
5149 *selsel₁ insert, cram in
5152 *Semay cooked rice
5155 *Sema tongue
5157 *Semut smothering, suffocating
5161 *Sepat four
5168 *ma-Sepat (gloss uncertain)
5170 *maka-Sepat four times
5177 *paR-Sepat-en do four times
5179 *Sa-Sepat four (of humans)
5186 *pat-a four (in counting certain referents)
5192 *Sepi dream
5199 *Sesi flesh, meat
5201 *Setek cut, sever, chop
5203 *Seyaq shyness, embarrassment; shame
5205 *ma-Seyaq shy, embarrassed; ashamed
5209 *Seyup blowing on (a fire, etc.)
5213 *Seyup-an place of blowing
5217 *S<um>eyup to blow
5219 *Sezam borrow, lend
5224 *pa-Sezam lend
5227 *Señaw to wash
5237 *seŋseŋ cork, stopper, plug
5241 *sibu urine
5244 *sidu spoon, ladle
5250 *Sikam mat
5252 *Sikan fish
5256 *Siket tie, bind, attach to by tying
5267 *silaq split
5277 *SimaR grease, oil, fat
5283 *Simu 2p pronoun: you
5287 *siNaR sun
5289 *SiNuq beads, necklace
5291 *Sin- verb prefix
5294 *SipaR opposite side (esp. of a river)
5297 *Sipes cockroach
5300 *Sipi dream
5308 *sipsip sip, suck
5318 *SiRup sip, as soup or rice wine from a bowl
5331 *Siwid slanting, awry
5333 *Si-₁ verbal prefix marking instrumental or benefactive voice
5335 *Si-₂ originate from, come from
5337 *Siñaw to wash
5339 *Siñaw-an place where one washes
5341 *iŋ(e)pis thin (of material objects)
5351 *Siŋus sniff, sniffle (as with a runny nose)
5359 *Suab yawn
5361 *ma-Suab to yawn, yawning
5368 *Suaji younger sibling
5376 *Suaji-an called or regarded as siblings (?)
5386 *SulaR snake
5389 *suleN insert, plug
5390 *Sulem dimness, twilight
5392 *ma-Sulem dim, dark
5395 *Sulij lie or sleep next to
5398 *SuluR lower or let down, as on a rope
5411 *Supiq plant shoot
5415 *Suni chirping of birds; noise, sound
5418 *S<um>uni to chirp, to crow, to sound off (birds)
5420 *SuNus withdraw, pull out, extract
5426 *supsup sip, suck
5428 *suqaR thorn
5429 *SuqSuq drip or drain out
5433 *suquN carry on the head
5434 *SuRas wash body parts, cooking or eating utensils (but not clothes)
5443 *SuRSuR drawstring; to thread a drawstring
5446 *SuRut pull, draw
5447 *SuRut-en be pulled or drawn
5448 *SuSuq drip or drain out
5452 *Suyeʔab to yawn
5459 *CegCeg to beat, pound on
5463 *Suʔu 2sg. agent/possessor
5467 *sukud walking stick, cane, staff
5481 *talaw timid, fearful; coward
5483 *taliuk turn, go around
5491 *tama₁ appropriate, suitable, right; fit together; hit the mark
5505 *tamtam smack the lips
5509 *tapis₁ loincloth (?)
5511 *tapus end, complete, finish
5513 *taqan₁ snare trap; set a snare trap
5522 *tañam try, taste
5532 *tapun gather, assemble
5535 *ta(R)kes wrap around, encircle
5542 *tebaS to cut, clear vegetation
5543 *tebek pierce, stab
5546 *t<um>ebek to pierce, to stab
5548 *tebteb to cut
5552 *teda leftover, remainder
5559 *teguŋ to boom, resound
5565 *tekiq high-pitched sound; chirp of a gecko
5566 *tektek₂ gecko, house lizard (onom.)
5586 *terter shiver, tremble
5589 *teñeb submerge
5591 *teŋiC grimace at pain
5593 *tepuk hit, sound of hitting, clapping, thumping
5597 *teŋteŋ₁ drone, droning tone
5600 *tibuk pound, throb
5606 *tikel bend
5619 *timij chin, jaw
5627 *tirtir₁ shiver, tremble
5635 *i-ti 1p deixis and spatial reference: this; here
5660 *tuiq bird sp.
5665 *tuktuk₁ beak of a bird; to peck
5666 *tuktuk₂ top, summit, crown
5667 *tuku₁ prop, post
5682 *tuqed tree stump; stubble
5683 *tuqtuq to hammer, pound, crush
5687 *titik to beat on something loudly
5689 *tuRtuR resonant sound
5706 *Cukul huddle, bow the head
5709 *ua₁ exclamation of surprise, etc.
5716 *ubuC pluck, pull out
5739 *udu grass
5749 *ujuŋ nose
5764 *ulaw confusion, perplexity
5765 *ma-ulaw dazed, confused
5767 *ulaŋ repeat, do again
5791 *umaN again
5804 *umuR hold in the mouth
5805 *<um> verbal infix marking actor voice
5811 *uNay sliver, splinter, foreign body embedded in the flesh
5818 *uNuq beads, necklace
5840 *huRaC artery, blood vessel, blood vein; muscle; nerve; sinew; tendon
5853 *qusiR pursuit (as of enemies or game)
5865 *utaq vomit
5869 *pa-utaq cause to vomit
5870 *um-utaq to vomit
5872 *utaq-an vomit (imperative)
5873 *utaq-en be vomited up; vomit (command)
5915 *-wadaŋ collarbone, clavicle
5941 *wakwak bird sp.; to caw, crow
5943 *walu eight
5947 *maka-walu eight times (frequentative, multiplicative)
5950 *paR-walu-en do eight times
5954 *wa-walu eight (of humans)
5956 *waNan right (side, hand, direction)
5962 *waqay foot, leg
5963 *waray to separate, as two people
5968 *waRi₁ day; sun; dry in the sun
5977 *watawat wave, flutter (as a flag)
5996 *wili return, come back
5998 *wiRi left side or direction
5999 *ka-wiRi left side or direction
6003 *witiwit wag, swing from side to side
6007 *wiŋawiŋ wag, shake, move repeatedly from side to side
6026 *za(ŋ)kuC grab, grasp, seize
6039 *zulu earlier, in advance
6040 *ŋabŋab bite off the surface of something
6044 *ñamñam tasty, delicious (?)
6049 *ñawñaw rinse, wash
6070 *ŋitŋit₁ gnaw
6438 *baqi grandmother
6439 *bajaq₁ know, understand; ask, inquire
6441 *ka-bajaq know, understand
6442 *ma-bajaq know, understand
6443 *pa-bajaq give knowledge, teach
6444 *baseq wash clothes
6455 *basuq to wash
6456 *b<um>asuq to wash
6463 *biqel goiter
6464 *daqiS forehead; face
6474 *panaq throw something at a target; shoot with bow and arrow
6476 *p<in>anaq shoot with a bow
6477 *p<um>anaq shoot with a bow
6485 *batux stone; testicle
6501 *batu₃ to throw
6510 *kuden clay cooking pot
6526 *ŋayaw headhunting
6530 *RabuC uproot, pull out by the roots
6534 *SayaN termite
6535 *tageRaŋ ribcage
6538 *Cebiq split, divide, break off
6552 *aki grandfather, ancestor
6553 *apa₂ carry on the back
6554 *baki₂ grandfather
6555 *bali₃ wind
6556 *ma-bali₁ windy
6557 *baliw buy, sell
6558 *b<um>aliw buy
6559 *beNbeN banana: Musa sapientum L.
6560 *beRuS a plant: Rhus semialata
6561 *bunuS machete
6562 *Capuh sweep
6563 *Ca-Capuh broom
6564 *CawiN year
6565 *Cemel grass, herbs; medicine
6566 *Ceme-Cemel uncultivated land
6567 *Cumay Formosan black bear
6568 *daqu₂ soapberry: Sapindus mukrossi, S. saponaria
6569 *daRa₁ Formosan maple: Liquidambar formosana
6570 *kakaCu spider
6571 *kahuS scoop up
6572 *k<um>ahuS scoop up
6573 *kawaS₁ year, season; sky, heaven
6574 *keRiw hemp plant; hemp
6575 *kiRim seek, search, look for
6576 *ma-kiRim found?
6577 *k<um>iRim to seek, search, look for
6578 *kiRim-en be looked for
6579 *kuNkuN Formosan hill partridge
6580 *kuRi rake
6581 *ka-kuRi a rake
6582 *k<um>uRi to rake
6583 *lawaR flying squirrel
6584 *likeS mosquito
6585 *lukeNaw Formosan clouded leopard
6586 *lutuk₁ the Formosan hare: Lepus sinensis formosus
6587 *maqaw a plant: Litsea cubeba (Lour.)
6588 *Nibu lair, den of an animal
6589 *ŋuSuN nosebleed
6590 *pataS tattoo
6593 *qelud housepost, pillar
6594 *RameC root
6595 *RiNaS long feathers used for personal adornment
6596 *RiNaS-an the male of Swinhoe’s blue pheasant
6597 *Rubu nest, lair
6598 *sakeC muntjac, barking deer
6599 *Sanaq river otter
6600 *Sidi Formosan serow, mountain goat
6601 *SuReNa snow
6602 *waNiS tusk of wild boar
6603 *waNiS-an wild boar
6604 *waNu honeybee
6605 *k<in>aCu was brought; what was brought
6606 *k<um>aCu to bring, to carry along
6607 *pa-kaCu to send
6611 *daki dirt on skin; dandruff
6612 *dakiS climb, ascend
6613 *d<um>akiS climb, ascend
6614 *kaSkaS scratch up the soil, as a chicken looking for food
6619 *ajem heart; mind
6620 *baRat₂ cucumber: Cucumis sativus
6621 *Cali cultivated taro: Colocasia esculenta
6622 *CekeS kind of very slender bamboo
6623 *qeCeŋeN black
6624 *ima who?
6625 *pajiS enemy
6626 *peSiq squeeze out juice; squirt out
6627 *puja navel, umbilical cord
6628 *pujek navel, umbilical cord
6629 *Ritu loquat tree and fruit: Eriobotrya deflexa
6630 *Samaq a plant: Lactuca indica Linn., and Sonchus oleraceus Linn.
6632 *adaS bring, take along
6633 *um-adaS bring
6634 *dawiN far
6635 *Cabu to wrap
6636 *C<um>abu to wrap
6637 *CebuN smoke
6638 *ini negative marker: no, not
6639 *ketun cut, sever
6641 *kulay₁ worm, insect
6642 *kuya₁ bad, defective
6643 *lapis flying squirrel
6644 *nay deictic particle: this
6645 *punuq₁ brain, marrow
6646 *puSaN twice
6647 *ma-puSaN twenty
6648 *qaRidaŋ bean, pea (generic)
6649 *qaRiw dry
6650 *qelqel chew, gnaw on
6651 *qubiS pubic hair
6652 *qudaS gray hair
6653 *riSriS hoe up weeds; weed a garden
6654 *RamiS root
6655 *uSa go
6656 *pa-uSa to send away
6657 *um-uSa to go, to walk
6674 *ŋuSuR nasal mucus
6678 *RaSuŋ ambush, attack from concealment
6679 *taRah to wait
6681 *t<um>aRah to wait
6682 *dakeS a tree: the camphor laurel: Cinnamomum spp.
6683 *ŋiSŋiS beard
6684 *puNi whiteness
6685 *ma-puNi white
6686 *qemu sticky rice cake
6687 *qiNaS moon, month
6688 *Ribawa swell; swelling, tumor
6689 *Rimeja sword grass: Imperata cylindrica
6690 *tuRukuk chicken
6691 *sakay₂ walk
6692 *s<um>akay to walk
6693 *Sawiki betel nut: nut of Areca catechu
6694 *Suaw yawn
6695 *ma-Suaw to yawn
6696 *SipuR to count
6697 *tanaq a plant: Aralia decaisneana (Hance)
6698 *taRuqan field hut; temporary shelter used when working for extended periods in fields far from the village
6699 *tatak hoe
6700 *tenem sea, ocean
6704 *dapaN sole of the foot; footprint
6705 *kiRkiR rasp, file
6706 *paheku bracken, edible fern that grows by rivers: Athyrium esculentum
6707 *tikuRas a bird: the Formosan bamboo partridge
6708 *dukduk₁ ginger
6709 *siRa₁ yesterday
6710 *taŋa₂ to open
6711 *ma-taŋa will open?
6713 *bukas release, undo
6723 *damuq₁ menstrual blood?
6783 *walay thread
6785 *bayu to pound rice
6818 *SameCi a plant: Solanum nigrum
6825 *duRi thorn
6845 *luCuŋ the Formosan rock monkey: Macaca cyclopis
6856 *dalayap kind of citrus tree and fruit
6861 *-matek jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp.
6862 *qaNi-matek jungle leech, Haemadipsa spp.
6871 *paqiC hotness of taste, spiciness; bitterness
6874 *ma-paqiC bitter
6885 *ñamuR dew
6902 *puluq₁ group of ten
6905 *sa-puluq ten
6907 *Sika-puluq tenth
6917 *Culi deaf
6934 *bahi female
6939 *ba-bahi woman, female
6941 *b<in>ahi woman, wife
6948 *manuk chicken
6963 *daŋdaŋ₁ broil; warm oneself or something near a fire
6969 *daŋdaŋ-an place something near a fire
6986 *peNuq full, of a container
7000 *peñu sea turtle
7018 *dadaN old, of things; ancient times
7020 *daqaN old, ancient
7039 *lahud downstream, toward the sea
7046 *Si-lahud wind from the sea (?)
7050 *Niwaŋ thinness, slenderness
7051 *ma-Niwaŋ thin, of persons and animals
7066 *baSaw cold, of leftover food; leftovers from a meal
7068 *ma-baSaw cooled off, as cooked food that has been left to sit too long
7070 *baSay a hairy vine: Pueraria hirsuta
7077 *dakep catch, seize; embrace
7079 *d<um>akep to catch, capture; embrace
7080 *dakep-en be caught, captured
7082 *qaReNu a plant, Phragmites spp.
7084 *qanus₁ a plant: Begonia aptera (Hay)
7088 *dalem in, inside; deep
7092 *ma-dalem deep
7105 *lipen tooth
7109 *danaw lake
7111 *layu wither, wilt
7114 *baŋaS a tree: Melia azedarach
7115 *biliN to follow after someone, walk behind
7116 *Cebuŋ to meet, come together
7117 *diNaŋ rust; hematite
7118 *kaway₃ net bag used by men for carrying things on back
7119 *kawkaw₁ sickle for harvesting grain
7120 *keRet cut something slender or soft; reap crops
7121 *k<um>eRet cut something slender
7122 *keRet-en be cut
7123 *Nihib rock shelter, cave under a rock
7124 *NuqeS bone marrow
7125 *qadiS hawk sp. (harrier?)
7126 *qaNa stranger; enemy
7127 *SiSiN omen bird: Alcippe spp.
7128 *uka₁ negative existential: there is none
7129 *dilaq₁ to lick
7131 *d<um>ilaq to lick
7136 *nipen tooth
7138 *ŋipen tooth
7140 *paid fan
7143 *puki vulva, vagina
7144 *alim forget
7145 *bajiw edible mushroom sp.
7146 *baqeSiŋ sneeze
7147 *piad dish, plate
7148 *guRiCa octopus
7150 *gaCel itch, feel itchy
7165 *t<um>azem sharpen
7166 *laCeŋ stinging nettle: Laportea spp.
7171 *lebeŋ₁ to bury
7172 *pikuq₁ to bend, curve; bent, curved
7173 *qapiC tongs, anything used to hold things together by pinching
7174 *Seŋaw to breathe (?)
7176 *tabaN head trophy, trophy taken in headhunting (?)
7187 *mumu Formosan blind mole: Talpa micrura insularis (Swinhoe)
7188 *Nutud join two things to give added length (rope, bamboo, etc.)
7189 *qulas dewdrop
7190 *RabiS small knife
7191 *Samud a plant, sesame: Sesamum indicum
7192 *Seŋad to breathe
7193 *S<um>eŋad to breathe
7194 *Sijap broom
7195 *tadaw kind of large knife
7196 *tanayan bamboo sp.
7197 *waCaN deep pool or pond
7198 *waCa-waCaN small pond(?)
7205 *daRaq blood; to bleed; menstruate
7207 *ma-daRaq bloody, bleeding; to menstruate
7210 *daya upriver, toward the interior
7213 *kuliC rind, peeling of fruits or tubers
7221 *naNaq pus
7226 *alujah ant sp.
7227 *baŋeS skin
7228 *benan deer of the genus Cervus, either the sika deer or sambar deer
7229 *lupas₁ peach
7230 *Naqeji boundary between adjacent rice fields
7231 *sihikay maggot
7232 *Seked stop an activity, take a break, rest
7233 *tuquN an evergreen tree, probably Acacia confusa
7235 *p<um>espes to massage
7237 *hulhul₁ to bark, of a dog
7239 *kabit₁ hook
7240 *kawil₁ fishhook
7243 *kawit hook
7250 *piluk₁ crippled; bent or twisted, of the leg or foot
7254 *taNiud mulberry tree and fruit: Morus formosensis (Hotta)
7255 *kawaS₂ talk, talk about, discuss
7256 *lebleb₁ foggy, misty, overcast, gloomy, of weather preceding rain
7257 *pedel to wring out, as water from wet clothes
7258 *qaNeb door
7259 *supay whetting, sharpening
7260 *s<um>upay to whet, grate, sharpen
7261 *sa-supay-an whetstone
7262 *Sikad ashamed; shy
7263 *ma-Sikad ashamed; shy; modest
7264 *SulSul to masturbate
7265 *ma-lebleb foggy, misty, overcast, gloomy, of weather preceding rain
7268 *k<um>uSkuS to scrape
7272 *kuSkuS₁ claw, talon, fingernail
7274 *k<aN>uSkuS claw, talon, fingernail
7276 *likaC lightning
7282 *mujiŋ face (human)
7283 *mujiŋ-an (gloss uncertain)
7284 *NaCeŋ vegetables
7286 *NataD outside
7289 *suNaR light, radiance
7291 *s<um>uNaR to shine, radiate light
7293 *bunuR₁ to swell; swollen
7294 *ma-bunuR to swell; swollen
7295 *kuCkuC roll up, curl up tightly
7296 *maNaŋ sharp
7297 *RuSRuS to scrape smooth, to plane a surface
7299 *umaS to pickle, preserve meat or fish
7301 *Rinu winnowing basket
7303 *Rumaq house
7304 *baŋun₁ the Japanese cypress: Chamaecyparis obtusa
7305 *bula₂ to give
7306 *kapua silk cotton, kapok
7307 *Namat iron (metal)
7311 *lubaŋ₁ burial pit
7314 *l<um>ubaŋ to bury, place in a pit or hole
7316 *RaCus hundred
7321 *titu puppy; young animal in general?
7323 *dua over there, yonder
7324 *nema what thing?
7325 *takis sword
7326 *adi no, not
7329 *detdet packed tightly together
7330 *diRus bathe
7331 *taNek to cook anything but rice
7335 *t<in>aNek boiled foods other than rice?
7337 *t<um>aNek to cook anything but rice
7339 *taNek-en to be cooked
7343 *timuR south or east wind
7345 *timus salt
7346 *timu salt
7347 *timuRmuR rinse the mouth
7348 *uŋay ritually sacrificed monkey?
7349 *buŋa flower, blossom
7350 *tuduS knee
7356 *liqeR neck
7358 *Raya big, large
7361 *tuduq to leak, drip, as a leaky roof; a drop of water
7363 *t<in>uduq dripped; what dripped
7365 *tuduq-en to drip
7366 *tuduq-an to drip
7372 *iuk citrus fruit (both orange and pomelo?)
7376 *ka-Rabi-an (gloss uncertain)
7380 *Rabi-an evening, night
7382 *Rabi-Rabi every night, happening every night
7383 *diRi to stand
7384 *lima five
7390 *la-lima five (in counting people)
7391 *maka-lima five times
7397 *Sika-lima fifth (ordinal numeral)
7401 *ma-lima-N fifty
7407 *Sapiq flattened
7409 *layaR sail
7414 *pijpij close together
7415 *ma-pizpiz closely spaced, set close together
7417 *buRay flower
7418 *Sina a plant: Erechtites spp.
7419 *waqit barb, point; canine tooth?
7421 *ma-talaw fearful, cowardly
7422 *palu₃ to hammer, pound, hit
7424 *palu-palu hammer, mallet, instrument for pounding or hammering
7425 *takut fear
7427 *ma-takut fearful, afraid
7437 *CaNem grave; to bury
7447 *ka-tanem-an area that is planted(?)
7449 *t<um>anem to plant
7450 *tanem-an area that is planted(?)
7451 *CaNem-en what is buried or planted
7453 *kuti vulva, vagina
7454 *CaNum carry water
7456 *daNum fresh water
7460 *pa-daNum to irrigate
7462 *pu-daNum to water, irrigate
7463 *danum-an (gloss uncertain)
7467 *kuja how?, how is it? what is the matter?
7469 *k<in>uja what has been said/done (to cause someone to react)?
7470 *k<um>uja (gloss uncertain)
7471 *ma-kuja what are you doing? what’s happening?
7478 *sepsep sip, suck
7481 *s<um>epsep to suck, sip
7483 *sepsep-en to be sucked up or in
7489 *guSam a fungal disease of the oral tract: thrush
7492 *lajam familiar with, accustomed to
7493 *ŋajan name
7500 *pu-ŋajan (gloss uncertain)
7503 *ŋilu painful sensation in teeth, as from eating something sour
7505 *ma-ŋilu painful, as of teeth on edge from eating something very sour
7507 *pakpak₁ to clap, flap the wings; sound of clapping or flapping
7509 *paqa₁ thigh
7511 *peReq squeeze out juice, wring out water
7513 *peRes squeeze out juice, extract liquid by squeezing
7516 *piSpiS cheeks, temples
7518 *piRaS roe, eggs of fish or crustacean
7521 *piRaS-an be laden with roe, of a fish or crustacean
7523 *saleŋ pine tree, pitch pine
7524 *pukaw night-blindness, nyctalopia
7525 *ma-pukaw dim, of vision
7526 *qa₂ interrogative particle
7528 *laŋiC sky
7531 *likaw curve, bend, winding
7532 *pa-likaw (gloss uncertain)
7535 *likud back
7536 *pa-likud (gloss uncertain)
7539 *likud-an back area, place at the back?
7540 *liku-likud (gloss uncertain)
7541 *liku-likud-an (gloss uncertain)
7542 *luluj shin
7543 *luluN to roll up, as a mat
7553 *ŋusuq nasal area; snout
7559 *susuN to stack up
7564 *dataR flat, flat or level land
7566 *ka-dataR-an plain, region of level land
7567 *demdem₂ gloom, darkness; dark, overcast, gloomy
7569 *ma-demdem dark, overcast, gloomy
7573 *laŋaw housefly
7576 *laŋaw-en infested with flies, covered with flies
7581 *Rudaŋ old, of people
7589 *zalan path, made by a human as opposed to an animal; way or means to do something
7593 *ka-zalan-an improvised trail, trail made by passing through?
7595 *za-zalan (gloss uncertain)
7597 *zalan-an passageway, place where one has walked
7598 *zalan-zalan small path or trail
7605 *zaRum needle
7611 *gayaŋ hunting spear
7612 *gemgem fist; hold in the fist
7615 *peceq₁ break into several large pieces
7625 *susu₁ female breast; udder
7629 *pa-susu give the breast to, nurse a child
7630 *pa-susu-en to nurse, give a child the breast (to be sucked)
7631 *s<um>usu to suckle, suck at the breast
7640 *kuCux head louse
7642 *ma-kuCu (gloss uncertain)
7649 *k<um>uCu to delouse
7667 *luSeq tears
7669 *maR-luSeq to shed tears, weep
7675 *pajay rice in the field; rice plant
7676 *ka-pajay-an (gloss uncertain)
7685 *duma someone; other people; be different
7698 *n-ita 1st pers. incl. genitive; our
7699 *iten₃ we (incl.)
7701 *kita we (incl.)
7702 *kalih a hole in the ground; to dig up, excavate, as tubers
7705 *ka-kalih digging stick
7708 *k<um>ali to dig up, excavate, as tubers
7709 *k<in>alih-an place that has been dug up
7712 *kaRaC to bite
7716 *kaRaC-i bite (imperative)
7718 *ma-kaRaC to be bitten
7720 *k<um>aRaC to bite
7722 *k<in>aRaC-an the bite of an animal
7723 *kaRaw₁ to scratch an itch
7724 *k<um>aRaw to scratch an itch
7731 *kati₁ exhortation to call a person or animal
7748 *depah fathom
7768 *ala-en be taken
7773 *C<um>aŋis to weep, cry, mourn
7774 *Caŋis-an to cry over something or someone
7783 *punti₁ banana
7786 *ma-ala be fetched, be taken
7787 *um-ala to fetch, get, take
7789 *nunuh female breast
7794 *kaSiw wood; tree
7802 *k<um>aSiw (gloss uncertain)
7806 *kaSiw-en (gloss uncertain)
7808 *kaSi-kaSiw wooded, having lots of trees
7812 *tiaN abdomen, belly
7817 *liseqeS nit, egg of a hair louse
7822 *paNiŋ door
7828 *ai₃ come
7829 *um-ai to come
7838 *Caqu to know how, be able to, be skilled at
7841 *ma-Caqu to be capable, able, knowledgeable
7843 *Caqu-an (gloss uncertain)
7872 *lakup cover, wrapping
7874 *duSa two
7877 *da-duSa two, of people
7879 *du-duSa (gloss uncertain)
7892 *mi-da-duSa do something with someone else, perform an action together
7893 *paka-duSa twice, do something twice
7897 *pin-duSa (gloss uncertain)
7899 *Sika-duSa second
7906 *duSa-en be divided into two
7909 *duSa duSa two by two, two at a time; two each
7923 *tumaNa to hear, listen
7924 *pa-tumaNa to make someone listen
7925 *t<um>umaNa to hear, listen
7931 *CugCug₂ knock or bump the head
7933 *C<um>ugCug knock or bump the head
7952 *tebuS sugarcane: Saccharum officinarum
7957 *tukud prop, support
7960 *aken₁ 1sg oblique
7961 *asaŋ₃ village
7962 *amen 1pl ex oblique
7967 *NiSawa breath; to breathe
7984 *ŋaŋa₂ open the mouth
8002 *kumiS pubic hair
8008 *kaen eat
8010 *ma-kaen will eat (?)
8015 *pa-kaen to feed
8016 *pa-kaen-en to feed, be fed
8020 *p<in>a-kaen was fed by someone
8021 *Si-kaen instrument used for eating
8023 *ka-kaen-an place where one eats
8024 *ka-kaen-en edible things, food
8025 *k<in>aen was eaten; what was eaten
8027 *k<um>aen to eat
8030 *kaen-an place where one eats; food
8031 *k<in>aen-an what was eaten; food
8032 *kaen-ay will eat
8033 *kaen-en be eaten by someone; cooked rice
8036 *kaen-i eat it!
8047 *pijax interrogative of quantity: how much?, how many?; adjective of indefinite quantity: some, several, a few
8052 *maka-pija (for) how many days?
8053 *pa-pija how many? (of people)
8056 *pija pija some, several
8067 *waSaw leaf
8079 *damaR₁ tree resin used in torches (?)
8087 *dekeC paste, adhesive (probably made of overcooked rice)
8091 *pa-dekeC to stick or paste on
8110 *Nasu cook by boiling
8112 *piliq to choose, to select; to pick out
8116 *ma-piliq (gloss uncertain)
8123 *ka-piliq-an (gloss uncertain)
8126 *p<um>iliq to choose, select, pick out
8129 *piliq-i choose it!
8131 *pipi₂ female genitalia (child’s word?)
8137 *taRaq₁ hewing with an adze
8140 *t<um>aRaq to adze wood, hew wood with an adze
8142 *taRaq-i Adze it!, Hew it!
8147 *ŋeCŋeC gnash the teeth
8156 *lahuN steam, vapor
8157 *Rahap seeds for sowing
8158 *R<um>ahap to sow seeds
8159 *taNaS village; place of residence
8172 *labaw₁ rat
8177 *lawaq₂ spider; spiderweb
8184 *pasek wooden nail, dowel; drive in, as a wooden nail, dowel, or fencepost
8208 *SeReC to bind tightly; belt
8210 *ma-SeReC tight, firm
8213 *S<um>eReC tighten, fasten firmly
8237 *giŋgiŋ cold, shivering
8245 *k<um>etun chop up, as firewood
8248 *deŋeR to hear; sound
8265 *guris line; scratch a line
8266 *putun₂ to break off, cut off, as a limb
8293 *suksuk pierce, penetrate; insert
8298 *s<um>uksuk to enter, penetrate, pierce
8310 *pitu₁ seven
8314 *maka-pitu (gloss uncertain)
8316 *pa-pitu seven (of humans)
8318 *pi-pitu seven each
8321 *saka-pitu (gloss uncertain)
8322 *Sika-pitu seventh
8324 *ti-pitu (gloss uncertain)
8325 *ka-pitu-an seventh month (?)
8327 *pitu pitu seven by seven, seven at a time
8357 *tuduR to sleep
8360 *ma-tuduR to sleep
8373 *tuNa freshwater eel
8375 *zaRami rice straw
8380 *Naŋuy to swim
8382 *N<um>aŋuy to swim
8386 *tulani bamboo nose flute
8414 *telu three
8420 *ka-telu (gloss uncertain)
8424 *ma-telu (gloss uncertain)
8434 *Sika-telu third
8437 *ta-telu three (of humans)
8455 *tubah a plant with roots that are pounded and put in rivers to stun fish: Derris elliptica
8460 *t<um>uba to stun fish with plant poison
8465 *kulaC bracket fungus, Polyporus spp.
8475 *Rusuk ribcage
8485 *sikux elbow
8491 *s<um>iku to elbow; to push or jab with the elbow
8505 *tuqaS old, of people; primary forest, old forest
8512 *tuqaS tuqaS older people, elders
8514 *ma-tuqaS tuqaS old, elder, senior
8522 *qeCqeC tight, constricted
8527 *kita₂ to see
8531 *pa-kita to show
8532 *k<um>ita to see
8533 *kita-en be seen by someone (?)
8539 *nimas bailer in a canoe
8546 *ŋerŋer growl
8555 *ŋesŋes to pant, be out of breath
8556 *ŋetŋet gnaw, nibble
8564 *ŋidaw toothless
8565 *paen bait
8580 *garuC comb
8583 *g<um>aruC to comb
8594 *ŋawŋaw sound produced by an animal; unintelligible muttering of a person
8595 *ŋiCŋiC show annoyance or irritation
8598 *ŋusŋus to snore, growl, grunt
8601 *maCa eye, focal point, center or most prominent part
8606 *m<in>aCa open-eyed (?)
8614 *Cau nu maCa pupil of the eye (‘person of the eye’)
8628 *mata nu qalejaw sun (‘eye of the day’)
8647 *pukpuk to hammer, pound, beat
8656 *punay greenish fruit dove
8658 *puna-punay greenish fruit dove
8670 *putput₁ to pluck, pull out
8673 *ma-Nipis thin (of materials)
8693 *na₃ genitive of plural personal names
8717 *kelem dark, overcast, visually obscure
8734 *tenun to weave (cloth)
8735 *ta-tenun-an loom
8736 *t<in>enun was woven by someone; what was woven
8737 *t<um>enun to weave
8738 *tenun-an loom
8739 *t<in>enun-an woven cloth
8741 *tinun to weave cloth
8742 *tenun-en to be woven by someone
8745 *mamah father’s brother
8750 *zawa₂ millet sp.: Setaria italica (?)
8752 *ma-₁ stative prefix
8753 *ma-₂ future prefix
8754 *Na₂ already
8759 *labiq excess, surplus
8764 *ŋalŋal to chew, masticate
8769 *-ku 1sg genitive (marker of non-subject agency and possession; my; by me)
8773 *kilala to know (a person), recognize, be acquainted with; to feel, perceive
8781 *ni genitive case marker for singular personal names and pronouns; marker of possession, part-to-whole relationships, and agency of a non-actor voice verb
8782 *si₁ nominative case marker for singular personal names or kin terms used as personal names
8785 *ki- prefixed to a noun means ‘to get, obtain, collect, gather’ (noun)
8787 *ki₂ oblique case marker for personal nouns
8789 *mu- movement prefix
8790 *-nu₂ 2sg possessor and non-subject agent
8795 *baCaR broomcorn millet: Panicum miliaceum
8796 *di locative case marker (probably for singular personal names; cf. *da, *du)
8797 *da locative case marker (probably for plural personal names; cf. *di, *du)
8800 *ka₃ oblique case marker for plural personal names
8801 *ku oblique of common nouns (cf. *ki, *ka)
8802 *nu₃ genitive case marker for common nouns (cf. *na, *ni)
8809 *sa₁ nominative case marker for plural personal names
8810 *su nominative case marker for common nouns
8812 *pa₁ still, yet, til now, first (before doing something else)
8820 *tuzuq₁ to point at, point out; give directions
8827 *pa-tuzuq to point out, give directions (?)
8831 *t<um>uzuq to point at, point out, lecture or instruct, give advice
8833 *tuzuq-en be pointed at, be pointed out
8840 *ni-ima whose?
8841 *si-ima who?
8842 *garaŋ₁ fierce, intense, as of appetite or temper
8860 *Nipis thinness (of materials)
8876 *gumuN body hair
8883 *keRan₁ scab on a wound
8884 *keRaŋ₃ dry
8890 *qali-puju-an hair whorl
8891 *kikuR tail
8896 *tusuk pierce, skewer or string together
8898 *paNid wing
8900 *daRiq soil, probably clay
8905 *seksek₁ to stuff, cram in; be crowded
8912 *selem₁ sink, immerse oneself in water, dive into the water; to set, of the sun
8913 *tektek₁ chopping to pieces, cutting up, as meat or vegetables
8916 *t<in>ektek was chopped up
8917 *t<um>əktək to chop, hack, cut off
8918 *tektek-en be chopped into pieces, be minced, as meat or vegetables; what is chopped up or minced
8920 *kapit fasten together by sewing or tying
8921 *kakak caw, cackle
8931 *tuked prop, support
8944 *s<um>ebuS to hiss or steam, of water touching a fire
8949 *sebu bladder
9000 *qa-lima hand
9002 *geCel to pinch
9004 *getil to pinch
9026 *tutuh beat, pound, bump, thump
9031 *lipet to fold, fold over
9050 *bakaŋ₁ bowlegged
9053 *pitpit₂ pinch, squeeze, press between two surfaces; pluck, pick off
9054 *pitpit-en be pinched, squeezed, or pressed
9074 *quyaS to sing; song, tune, melody
9075 *sabay₁ do something together with others
9079 *kaŋkaŋ₂ resounding sound
9087 *suked prop, support; to prop up or support
9091 *siRup to sip, as through a straw
9102 *sabsab slurp up food or water, eat like a pig or dog; gulp down
9110 *(q)uNah first, before, anterior in time
9111 *(q)<um>uNah to do or go first; to lead
9145 *ma-kuliC skinny, thin, underweight
9146 *aŋay departure (?)
9147 *um-aŋay to leave, depart (?)
9153 *liduŋ shelter, cover, protection; shade
9156 *saheNaR to shine, of the sun
9158 *sakut to carry, transport, move something
9159 *s<um>akut to carry, transport, move something
9164 *Siwa nine
9168 *Sika-Siwa ninth
9170 *u-Siwa nine (of things?)
9176 *baRaŋ rib (?)
9177 *bukuN back (anat.)
9180 *kepit press together; pressed together
9183 *kukuŋ₁ small bird that produces a deep resounding call
9184 *kuŋkuŋ₁ deep resounding sound; slit-gong, hollowed tree trunk used to send messages
9197 *saqit hook; to hang up
9217 *sipit tongs, pincers, claw of a crab or lobster; to pinch or squeeze
9239 *banaw lake
9244 *sapaq₁ stream, river
9249 *kudeŋ clay cooking pot
9255 *sapet grab with the hand, catch
9276 *saNiw whetstone
9304 *suRuq₂ to call on a person to do something
9323 *siwsiw to cheep; baby chick
9434 *taNah red
9446 *sequŋ horn of an animal
9447 *ReŋeC angry, annoyed
9461 *pa-₂ causative prefix
9463 *pa-ka- causative of stative verbs
9473 *wanaN right (side, hand, direction)
9475 *ka-wanaN right (side, hand, direction)
9501 *sepiq break off fruit or branches
9514 *sa₂ locative marker
9538 *seŋet₂ to sting or bite, of an insect
9545 *sa₃ one (clitic form of *esa)
9560 *suli₂ to reverse, turn around
9567 *siap chick
9590 *salaw to pour, of heavy rain
9591 *samaq remnant, leftover
9595 *suiq a bird: the sandpiper (?)
9609 *C<um>apu to sweep
9620 *sapay drape over the shoulder or from a line, as a cloth
9629 *saput₂ to pick up with something to avoid getting dirty or burned
9635 *siwaq fissure, split in something
9640 *sulud₂ push
9641 *s<um>ulud to push
9702 *ami 1pl. excl. nominative pronoun, we (exclusive)
9703 *i-ami 1pl. excl. nominative, we
9705 *k-ami 1pl. excl. nominative pronoun, we (exclusive)
9707 *n-ami 1pl. excl. genitive, our
9708 *amu 2pl. nominative pronoun
9709 *k-amu 2pl. nominative, you all
9711 *n-amu 2pl. genitive, your, by you
9712 *kamu-yu 2pl. nominative, you all
9725 *suŋa do wrong, do in reverse
9727 *ka-₂ stative marker in irrealis constructions, counterpart to *ma- in realis constructions
9730 *ka-₅ formative for abstract nouns of quality
9736 *ka- -an₁ marker of the adversative passive
9737 *ka- -an₂ formative for nouns of location
9738 *ka- -an₃ formative for abstract nouns (often deverbal)
9742 *kaka₂ elder sibling
9746 *kabal₁ clothing
9748 *kabaR clothing
9756 *kabus₂ shrimp, lobster
9758 *samuR to mix; mixture
9764 *kaSu 2sg., you
9766 *i-kaSu 2sg., you
9776 *kawayan bamboo, Bambusa spp., probably Bambusa spinosa
9778 *kurap ringworm
9787 *kaija when? (in the past)
9794 *kaRi₁ word, speech, language
9799 *katkat₂ come undone, of stitches
9802 *kiwkiw to wave, wag (tail); to stir (people) up
9829 *karus to scratch, scrape
9836 *kiskis to shave, scrape off
9845 *kumeS pubic hair
9850 *kutkut₂ scrape off
9932 *kipit narrow; pinch between tongs, etc.
9977 *kezuC to jerk suddenly, jump when startled
10020 *kurkur dig in the soil
10059 *kiŋeR to hear
10073 *kali- prefix for words with a sensitive reference to the spirit world (cf. *qali-)
10074 *qali- prefix for words with a sensitive reference to the spirit world (cf. *kali-)
10079 *kemkem₂ bite down hard
10101 *kaluŋkuŋ deep resounding sound
10103 *-meCaq paddy leech
10104 *qaNi-meCaq paddy leech
10116 *keret to sever, cut off
10227 *qalima hand
10249 *katawa castor bean: Ricinus communis L.
10270 *ta-₁ 1pl. incl. nominative and hortative pronoun
10272 *-ta 1pl. incl. genitive suffix
10286 *taR- prefix marking spontaneous or involuntary action
10313 *tabukul casting net for fishing
10336 *tabtab₂ slurp up food or water; eat like a pig or dog; gulp down
10356 *tabi plough
10390 *takes₁ to wrap around; embrace, hug
10430 *taktak₁ to fall, of many things at once; to dislodge the contents of a container by knocking it against something
10472 *tekep a cover; to cover with a flat surface
10497 *tukul to sprout, begin to grow
10504 *tastas sever, cut through, rip out stitches
10522 *Su- take off, remove (+ noun)
10523 *tata₁ collateral consanguine of the first ascending generation
10524 *taktak₂ clatter, clack
10535 *pu-Caqi to defecate
10553 *tudiŋ to point out
10554 *pi- causative of location
10555 *pu- causative of motion
10559 *CuŋCuŋ make a booming sound
10560 *Cuzuq index finger
10568 *tiR(e)peS spittle
10573 *tuktuk₃ to knock, pound, beat; crush
10640 *taku₂ dipper, scoop; to scoop, ladle up
10674 *turis scratch a line, make a long shallow cut
10690 *ikud to sit
10692 *ramig cold (of weather)
10693 *Si-₃ to wear, put on clothes, etc.
10710 *Caŋelaj elephant grass, miscanthus grass: Themeda gigantea
10733 *tukad₂ sloping upward; to climb a mountain
10759 *tekuŋ₂ to rap, knock, make a booming sound
10760 *timaNa to hear, listen
10761 *t<um>imaNa to hear, listen
10814 *taina female, of animals
10820 *tutur₂ cooing of a dove
10821 *tutut sparrow or similar bird
10827 *piak baby chick; peeping of chick
10846 *mi- prefix marking possession of some object
10860 *padeŋ to extinguish, douse a fire
10862 *piNay lame, crippled
10863 *ma-piNay lame, crippled
10877 *uReŋ horn of an animal
10889 *pa-pespes to massage
10890 *p<in>espes was massaged by someone
10891 *pespes-i massage (imperative)
10894 *p<um>ekpek (gloss uncertain)
10897 *lekuq₁ bend; bending part, joint
10913 *pispis₁ hair on the temples
10917 *pitpit₃ to beat, whip
10931 *beNelem overcast, twilight
10991 *ŋajay saliva, drivel
11005 *p<um>ataS to tattoo, make designs
11006 *pataS-an an instrument for tattooing
11012 *pisel pinch, squeeze; knead
11016 *pudu fruit of the betel pepper
11019 *keseR strength, vigor, force
11020 *ma-keseR strong, vigorous, energetic, forceful
11021 *pa-ka-keseR (gloss uncertain)
11114 *qaNeb close a door
11116 *qaNeb-an door panel
11175 *puluŋ collection, gathering, assembly
11213 *pasuk enter
11338 *paqeju gall, gall bladder
11383 *Sa-₁ stative prefix
11425 *lapaq to cut up, butcher, slaughter an animal
11460 *litlit wind around, bind by winding around
11461 *ma-litlit be or become wound around something
11462 *pa-litlit to make something wind around something else
11527 *lasuq₁ hot; blistered by heat
11541 *lipas to pass, pass by
11546 *lipuC disappear behind something that envelops or blocks the view
11589 *lutay weak, exhausted
11638 *nu- future marker with words for days
11643 *lawas₃ internode of bamboo; section of something
11645 *ledep to dive, swim under water
11646 *l<um>edep to dive, swim under water
11647 *ledled to rub the eyes
11654 *kauS scoop up, as with a fish net
11655 *k<um>auS to scoop up, as with a fish net
11661 *i-aku 1sg., I, me
11663 *lidam tongue
11687 *bunaj sand
11688 *Ceked to rest, take a break from work or other activity
11699 *qali-puspus whirlwind
11703 *SekuC hunched over, stoop-shouldered
11715 *-medaw dizzy, giddy
11727 *lalay cicada
11752 *ma-tuqaS old, of people
11755 *lakat₂ walk, take a step
11768 *k-ita we (incl.)
11771 *labeR₂ roam freely, of domesticated animals that are untethered
11782 *l<um>udaq to spit
11785 *laway thread, yarn
11787 *alikas quick, fast
11788 *ludaq saliva
11824 *ma-b<in>ahi female, woman
11916 *piku bend, curve
11953 *luNuŋ cloud
12048 *-waRwaR rainbow
12082 *dapuR₂ pile up, as stones
12084 *deŋdeŋ₂ thunder; roaring or thunderous sound
12091 *i-amen 1pl.ex oblique
12104 *atuR stone wall
12109 *teneb to immerse, put under water
12110 *tepeŋ₃ to measure quantities, as amounts of grain
12122 *Cebej spring of water, spring water
12187 *daNi soon, presently; almost
12244 *hesek₂ drive in stakes or posts
12266 *utan taro variety
12286 *SuRay to pass, of time; to pass time idly
12290 *zaRem needle
12310 *ti 1p deixis and spatial reference: this; here
12351 *tiktik₅ to tattoo
12352 *t<um>iktik to tattoo someone
12501 *zekzek to tread, trample on
12619 *ni-ia 3sg. genitive, his, her
12644 *imah drink
12645 *um-imah to drink
12648 *baleŋ₂ preserve meat in salt or brine
12662 *bakaR kind of basket
12666 *nuka to make hemp yarn
12676 *Sa-₂ marker of instrumental nouns
12678 *Selem dark, dim
12683 *kaNawaS a small tree bearing round, green fruit: Ehretia spp.
12687 *RiNuk the Japanese raspberry: Rubus parvifolius (Linn.), Rubus taiwanianus (Matsum.)
12715 *paliSi-an taboo
12717 *guCguC₂ to scratch, as an itch
12722 *qajiS boundary
12725 *t<um>ukad to climb, as a mountain or steps
12726 *CuquR a tree: Bischofia javanica
12729 *metmet to hold tightly
12730 *numa how?
12731 *Nayad a plant: Sambucus formosana
12733 *RauS scoop net
12734 *Ra-RauS a dip net
12739 *lapus untie (a knot), undress, remove clothes
12746 *teRteR to tremble, shiver
12747 *ya nominative case marker for singular common nouns
12768 *takep to lay something on top of another
12771 *aSik to sweep, remove trash
12773 *buleS a tree, the Chinese or Philippine mahogany: Shorea albus Foxw.
12775 *buŋuh head
12776 *damuq₂ dew
12777 *kalaw₂ eyebrow
12779 *tepik pat, light slap
12781 *a(lR)im pancreas, spleen
12782 *Nitaq type of soil, clay
12783 *qalupaR persimmon
12784 *qiSqiS to rub hard on a surface
12785 *qulu-qulu tadpole, polywog
12786 *qupid braid
12787 *sipiŋ supernumerary, as an extra finger or toe
12788 *tamuhuŋ a hat, head covering
12793 *dukduk₄ to thrust into a hole, as a stick to catch a crab
12794 *kahut to take in one’s hand; handful
12796 *mudaq young (of fruits); immature
12798 *dekdek₂ to tamp down, compact something
12802 *pahpah flower (?)
12811 *teRebeS a tree: Zelkova formosana
12814 *upup bullfrog
12818 *lubuk₃ bag, sack
12873 *kebkeb₂ to lie prone, face down
12890 *ma-qudem dark, cloudy


  1. ^ Blust, Robert; Trussel, Stephen (ed.). Austronesian Comparative Dictionary (web edition). Revision as of 21 June 2020.

See also

Vocabulary lists of Southeast Asian languages

p-Tibeto-Burman • Old Chinese (basic) • p-Southern Min • Macro-Bai • p-Tujia • p-Naish • p-Ersuic • Guiqiong • Horpa • p-Lolo-Burmese • p-Lalo • Lalo • Akha • Woni • Axi • Nesu • Yi (Mihei) • Kathu • Gong • p-Karenic • p-Luish • p-Bodo-Garo • Kuki-Chin • Suansu • Jejara • Mru • p-W. Tibetan • Tibetan (Lajiao) • Amdo Tibetan • Zakhring • Tshangla • Kho-Bwa • Mey • p-Puroik • p-Hrusish • Koro • Greater Siangic • Raji-Raute • Dhimalish • Baram-Thangmi • Bhujel • p-Kham • Dura • Bunan • (Nepal)


p-Austroasiatic (Swadesh) • p-Munda • p-Khasian • p-Palaungic • Quang Lam • p-Khmuic • p-Pakanic • p-Vietic • p-Katuic • p-Bahnaric • p-Pearic • p-Khmeric • p-Monic • p-Aslian • p-Nicobarese


p-Hmong-Mien • Hmong-Mien • p-Hmongic • Pa-Hng • Xong • Pana • She • p-Mienic • Mienic • Mien (Gongcheng) • Biao Min (Shikou)


p-Kra-Dai • p-Kra • Laha • Qabiao • Gelao • p-Kam-Sui • Kam-Sui (Hunan) • p-Lakkia • Biao • p-Tai • Zhuang (Tiandeng) • Bouyei • p-Be • Jizhao • p-Hlai • Jiamao