This Proto-Germanic entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.



From two sources, both reflecting earlier *-ōjaną:

  • From Proto-Indo-European *-eh₂yéti, an innovated compound suffix from *-eh₂ (eh₂-stem noun suffix) + *-yéti (denominative suffix). These were originally formed as denominative verbs from ō-stem nouns. When attached to thematic (a-stem) nouns, the thematic vowel was also retained, but the resulting compound suffix *-eyé- became part of the first weak class instead.
  • From Proto-Indo-European *-(e)h₂yéti, an innovated compound suffix from *-(e)h₂ti (factitive verb suffix) which was originally athematic, but later extended with the thematic present suffix *-yéti.

Cognates include Latin -āre (first conjugation), Ancient Greek -άω (-áō, contracted verb), Sanskrit -आयति (-ā́yati).




  1. Creates denominative verbs from nouns.
  2. Creates factitive verbs from adjectives.


Derived termsEdit


This class eventually became the dominant and most productive verb class in all daughter languages.

  • West Germanic: *-ōn
    • Old English: -ian
      • Middle English: -ien, -en
        • Scots: -e (obsolete)
        • English: -en, -e (obsolete)
    • Old Frisian: -ia
      • North Frisian: -je
      • Saterland Frisian: -je
      • West Frisian: -je
    • Old Saxon: -on, -oian
      • Middle Low German: -en
        • Low German: -en
    • Old Dutch: -on
    • Old High German: -ōn
      • Middle High German: -en
  • Old Norse: -a
    • Icelandic: -a
    • Faroese: -a
    • Norwegian:
      Norwegian Nynorsk: -e
      Norwegian Nynorsk: -a
    • Swedish: -a
    • Danish: -e
  • Gothic: -𐍉𐌽 (-ōn)