Dutch edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

  • (file)

Suffix edit

-je n (plural -jes)

  1. Alternative form of -tje.

Hungarian edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-je

  1. Possessive (and genitive) suffix: [from 1055]
    1. (with no possessor or with the 3rd‑person pronoun as possessor, usually construed with the definite article) hisherits …
      ház(a) háza, az ő háza (his/her/its house)élet(az) élete, az ő élete (his/her/its life)barát(a) barátja (his/her/its friend)kapu(a) kapuja (his/her/its gate)palota(a) palotája (his/her/its palace)kert(a) kertje (his/her/its garden)betű(a) betűje (his/her/its letter)vese(a) veséje (his/her/its kidney)
    2. (with a singular possessor)-'s, of … (third-person singular, single possession)
      Anna háza (Anna’s house), a felkelő nap háza (the house of the rising sun)Anna élete (Anna’s life), a város élete (the life of the city)a király palotája (the king’s palace)a ház kapuja (the gate of the house)Anna kertje (Anna’s garden), a tulipán kertje (the garden of the tulip)
    3. (with a plural possessor)-s’, of-s (third-person plural, single possession)
      a szüleim háza (my parents’ house), a trópusi növények háza ([the] house of [the] tropical plants, literally the tropical plants’ house)a szüleim élete (my parents’ lives, literally my parents’ life), a könyvek élete ([the] lives of [the] books, literally the books’ life)az uralkodók palotája (the rulers’ palace)a szüleim kertje (my parents’ garden), Az elágazó ösvények kertje (The Garden of Forking Paths)
    4. (with instantaneous time expressions) … ago (referring to a preceding point in time considered as an instant)
      Egy évszázada / két éve / egy órája / sok/hosszú ideje ment el.S/he left one century / two years / one hour / a long time ago.
      Synonym: -val/-vel ezelőtt, e.g. egy évszázaddal, két évvel ezelőtt
    5. (with durative time expressions) for … (referring to some duration that precedes the point of time in question)
      Egy évszázada / két éve / egy órája / sok/hosszú ideje várunk rád.We have been waiting for you for a century / two years / an hour / a long time.
    6. (mostly with quantities, often following -ik) of …, out of(partitive sense)
      Synonym: (only with countable quantities) közül
      jó (jav-) (the greater/better part)a java még hátravan (the best/bulk is yet to come, literally its best/bulk is…)
      legnagyobbik (the biggest one)a bikák legnagyobbika (the biggest [one] of the bulls, synonymous with a legnagyobb bika)

Usage notes edit

  • (possessive suffix) Variants:
    -a is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -e is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant
    -ja is added to back-vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -a changes to -á-; final -o changes to -ó-.
    -je is added to front-vowel words ending in a consonant or a vowel. Final -e changes to -é-; final changes to -ő-.
    • This suffix (in all forms) is normally used for the third-person singular possessive (single possession) but, after an explicit plural possessor, it also expresses the third-person plural possessive (single possession), e.g. “the children’s ball” (a gyerekek labdája). If the possessor is implicit (not named, only marked by a suffix), the plural possessive suffix must be used, e.g. “their ball” (a labdájuk, see -juk and its variants).

Declension edit

Inflection (stem in long/high vowel, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative -je
accusative -jét
dative -jének
instrumental -jével
causal-final -jéért
translative -jévé
terminative -jéig
essive-formal -jeként
essive-modal -jéül
inessive -jében
superessive -jén
adessive -jénél
illative -jébe
sublative -jére
allative -jéhez
elative -jéből
delative -jéről
ablative -jétől
non-attributive
possessive - singular
-jéé
non-attributive
possessive - plural
-jééi

Suffix edit

-je

  1. (personal suffix) Used to form the definite third-person singular present tense of front-vowel verbs (in subjunctive mood).

Usage notes edit

  • (personal suffix) See harmonic variants and the assimilation of j in the table below.

See also edit

Kayapó edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Northern Jê *de (ergative, stimulus).

Pronunciation edit

IPA(key): [-jɛ]

Suffix edit

-je

  1. out of (stimulus)

Derived terms edit

Lower Sorbian edit

Suffix edit

-je

  1. -ly (used to turn an adjective into an adverb of manner)

Usage notes edit

The j of this suffix merges with certain preceding consonants to create palatalized consonants not followed by j:

  • d + jź
  • zd + jzdź
  • g + jz
  • k + jc
  • ch + jš
  • ł + jl
  • t + jś
  • st + j

Synonyms edit

Derived terms edit

Saterland Frisian edit

Etymology edit

From Old Frisian -ia, from Proto-West Germanic *-ōn. Cognates include West Frisian -e and German -en.

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-je (type 1 form -e)

  1. Used to form verbs from nouns and adjectives.

Conjugation edit

For verbs ending in -n, -l and -r:

For verbs ending in other consonants:

Derived terms edit

References edit

  • Horst Haider Munske, editor (2001), “Das Saterfriesische”, in Handbuch des Friesischen [Handbook of Frisian studies], Tübingen: Max Niemeyer Verlag, →ISBN, page 414

Serbo-Croatian edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Slavic *-ьje.

Suffix edit

-je (Cyrillic spelling -је)

  1. Suffix appended to words to create a neuter noun, usually denoting a young animal, plant, place name or is used as a collective noun.

See also edit

West Frisian edit

Etymology edit

From Old Frisian -ia, from Proto-West Germanic *-ōn, from Proto-Germanic *-ōną, from various Proto-Indo-European suffixes.

Suffix edit

-je

  1. Forms verbs from nouns and adjectives. The stem of the word itself does not change.

Inflection edit

Weak class 2
infinitive -je
3rd singular past -e
past participle -e
infinitive -je
long infinitive -jen
gerund -jen n
auxiliary hawwe
indicative present tense past tense
1st singular -je -e
2nd singular -est -est
3rd singular -et -e
plural -je -en
imperative -je
participles -jend -e

Derived terms edit

Ye'kwana edit

Pronunciation edit

Suffix edit

-je

  1. Serves as an attributivizer to convert nouns into adverbs that can serve as attributes of other nouns or adverbial complements to a clause.
  2. Serves as an attributivizer to allow verbs nominalized with -tojo to function adverbially as a predicate in a subordinate clause of purpose with the meaning ‘in order to X’, ‘for X-ing’.
    Synonym: -me
  3. Serves as an attributivizer to allow borrowed verbs to function adverbially as a predicate when subordinated to ö'dü (for intransitive use) or üdü (for transitive use).

Usage notes edit

Unlike -me, with which it is sometimes interchangeable, this suffix does not usually cause syllable reduction, though it occasionally does when following the plural marker -komo. Phonologically it is a clitic rather than a suffix.

Derived terms edit

References edit

  • Cáceres, Natalia (2011) “⸗je”, in Grammaire Fonctionnelle-Typologique du Ye’kwana[1], Lyon, pages 81–82, 136–137, 145–146, 254–255