This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed terms and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.





*bʰuH- (perfective)

  1. to be, become, grow, appear

Reconstruction notes


Some sources such as LIV reconstruct full-grade forms *bʰewh₂- or *bʰweh₂-, on the basis of Italic and Celtic preterite and subjunctive stem.[1] According to Jasanoff, this root has no full grade, and the laryngeal cannot be precisely determined.[2]

Alternative reconstructions


Derived terms


Note: In many descendants, this root formed a suppletive verbal paradigm together with other roots, such as *h₁es- and *h₂wes-.

Further reading



  1. ^ Rix, Helmut, editor (2001), “*bʰu̯eh₂- ‘wachsen, entstehen, werden’”, in Lexikon der indogermanischen Verben [Lexicon of Indo-European Verbs] (in German), 2nd edition, Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag, →ISBN, pages 98–101
  2. ^ Jay Jasanoff, Hittite and the Indo-European Verb, Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 2003, pages 112, 113
  3. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1)‎[1], Oxford: Oxford University Press, →ISBN
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Trubachyov, Oleg, editor (1976), “byti”, in Этимологический словарь славянских языков [Etymological dictionary of Slavic languages] (in Russian), numbers 3 (*bratrьcь – *cьrky), Moscow: Nauka, page 155
  5. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) “Būra-”, in Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN
  6. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) “probus”, in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 490