From Middle French référence, from Medieval Latin referentia, nominative neuter plural of referēns, present participle of referō (“return, reply”, literally “carry back”).
- IPA(key): /ˈɹɛf.(ə)ɹəns/
- Hyphenation: ref‧er‧ence
reference (countable and uncountable, plural references)
- (literary or archaic) A relationship or relation (to something).
1621, Democritus Junior [pseudonym; Robert Burton], “Charity, compoſed of all three kindes, Pleaſant, Profitable, Honeſt”, in The Anatomy of Melancholy, Oxford: Printed by Iohn Lichfield and Iames Short, for Henry Cripps, OCLC 216894069; The Anatomy of Melancholy: […], 2nd corrected and augmented edition, Oxford: Printed by John Lichfield and James Short, for Henry Cripps, 1624, OCLC 54573970, partition 3, section 1, member 3, subsection 1, page 349:
- A man is beloued of a man, in that he is a man, but all theſe are farre more eminent and great, when they ſhal proceed from a ſanctified ſpirit, that hath a true touch of Religion, and a reference to God.
- A measurement one can compare to.
- Information about a person, provided by someone (a referee) with whom they are well acquainted.
a. 1800, William Cowper, “An Epistle to Joseph Hill, Esq.”, in The Task, Tirocinium, and Other Poems, page 180:
- Changes will befall, and friends may part, / But distance only cannot change the heart / And were I call’d to prove th’ assertion true, / One proof should serve—a reference to you.
- A person who provides this information; a referee.
- A reference work.
- (semantics) A relation between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object.
- (academic writing) A short written identification of a previously published work which is used as a source for a text.
- (academic writing) A previously published written work thus indicated; a source.
- (programming) An object containing information which refers to data stored elsewhere, as opposed to containing the data itself.
- (programming, character entity) A special sequence used to represent complex characters in a web page such as ™ or €.
- (obsolete) Appeal.
c. 1606–1607, William Shakespeare, “The Tragedie of Anthonie and Cleopatra”, in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: Printed by Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act V, scene ii], page 365, column 1:
- Y’are falne into a Princely hand, feare nothing, / Make your full reference freely to my Lord, / Who is ſo full of Grace, that it flowes ouer / On all that neede.
Terms derived from reference
measurement one can compare to
information about a person
semantics: relation between objects
academic writing: identification of a source
programming: object containing information which refers to data stored elsewhere
programming: special sequence used to represent complex characters
- The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.
Translations to be checked
reference (third-person singular simple present references, present participle referencing, simple past and past participle referenced)
- To provide a list of references for (a text).
You must thoroughly reference your paper before submitting it.
- To refer to, to use as a reference.
Reference the dictionary for word meanings.
1990, Thomas L. Bell, “Political Economy's Response to Positivism”, in Geographical Review, volume 80, number 3, American Geographical Society, JSTOR 215307, page 314:
- The penchant for synthesizing the work of others that pervades British scholarship has been described by one of my cynical American colleagues as “a giant bibliography that is always eating its own tail.” By this he means that cliques of like-minded writers tend to reference each other’s work incessantly.
1994, Barry Chamish, quoting Louis Rossetto, “The End of the Book”, in The Atlantic:
- Written information is a relatively new phenomenon. Depositing it and being able to reference it centuries later is not common human experience.
1998 January 26, Donnie Radcliffe, “New Library Will Chronicle First Ladies”, in The Washington Post, pages C1+:
- On the Florence Harding page, for instance, a researcher will be able to reference a book by Warren Harding’s alleged mistress, Nan Britton, who claimed that she bore his daughter.
- To mention, to cite.
In his speech, the candidate obliquely referenced the past failures of his opponent.
1988, Integrating the Humanities into Associate Degree Occupational Programs, American Association of Community Colleges, →ISBN, page 25:
- Humanities institutions specifically reference the work setting for illustrative applications of the unique and significant contributions of the Humanities.
1990, Jean Borgatti, “Portraiture in Africa”, in African Arts, volume 23, number 3, page 37:
- With the economy characteristic of all African sculpture, these portraits reference individual and social identities simultaneously, so that the image of a king may represent a particular king and all kings; a commemorative mask for a woman, a particular woman and all titled women.
1991 January 19, Bobby Ray Inman, “A Nominee’s Withdrawal: Transcript of the Statement by Inman on His Decision to Withdraw”, in The New York Times, page A14:
- And I would simply reference those of you who are out there working.
Some authorities object to the use of reference as a verb with a meaning other than “provide a list of references for,” preferring refer to or cite in these cases. Others allow the meaning “refer to” but reject “mention.” Nevertheless, the proscribed usages are common in both writing and speech.