Contents

LatinEdit

EtymologyEdit

From re- +‎ ferō(bear, carry).

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

referō ‎(present infinitive referre, perfect active rettulī, supine relātum); third conjugation, irregular

  1. I bear, bring, drive or carry back.
  2. I give back, give up, return, restore, pay back, repay.
  3. (of sound) I bring back, return, answer, echo.
  4. I bring back, restore, renew, revive, repeat.
  5. I say in return, respond, reply, answer.
  6. I repeat, report, announce, relate, recount, tell, say
  7. I make known officially, report, announce, notify, proclaim.

InflectionEdit

   Conjugation of refero (third conjugation, irregular, suppletive)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present referō refers refert referimus refertis referunt
imperfect referēbam referēbās referēbat referēbāmus referēbātis referēbant
future referam referēs referet referēmus referētis referent
perfect rettulī rettulistī rettulit rettulimus rettulistis rettulērunt, rettulēre
pluperfect rettuleram rettulerās rettulerat rettulerāmus rettulerātis rettulerant
future perfect rettulerō rettuleris rettulerit rettulerimus rettuleritis rettulerint
passive present referor referris, referre refertur referimur referiminī referuntur
imperfect referēbar referēbāris, referēbāre referēbātur referēbāmur referēbāminī referēbantur
future referar referēris, referēre referētur referēmur referēminī referentur
perfect relātus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect relātus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect relātus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present referam referās referat referāmus referātis referant
imperfect referrem referrēs referret referrēmus referrētis referrent
perfect rettulerim rettulerīs rettulerit rettulerīmus rettulerītis rettulerint
pluperfect rettulissem rettulissēs rettulisset rettulissēmus rettulissētis rettulissent
passive present referar referāris, referāre referātur referāmur referāminī referantur
imperfect referrer referrēris, referrēre referrētur referrēmur referrēminī referrentur
perfect relātus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect relātus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present refer referte
future refertō refertō refertōte referuntō
passive present referre referiminī
future refertor refertor referuntor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives referre rettulisse relātūrus esse referrī relātus esse relātum īrī
participles referēns relātūrus relātus referendus
verbal nouns gerund supine
nominative genitive dative/ablative accusative accusative ablative
referre referendī referendō referendum relātum relātū

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit

DescendantsEdit

Usage notesEdit

  • The forms "rettul..." are also found as "retul...".

ReferencesEdit

  • refero in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • refero in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • Félix Gaffiot (1934), Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Paris: Hachette, s.v.refero”.
  • Meissner, Carl; Auden, Henry William (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to retreat step by step: gradum sensim referre
    • to consider one's own advantage in everything: omnia ad suam utilitatem referre
    • to show gratitude (in one's acts): gratiam alicui referre (meritam, debitam) pro aliqua re
    • to return like for like: par pari referre
    • to reward amply; to give manifold recompense for: bonam (praeclaram) gratiam referre
    • the book is attributed to an unknown writer: liber refertur ad nescio quem auctorem
    • to enter a thing in one's note-book: aliquid in commentarios suos referre (Tusc. 3. 22. 54)
    • to make virtue the standard in every thought and act: omnia consilia et facta ad virtutem referre (Phil. 10. 10. 20)
    • to measure something by the standard of something else; to make something one's criterion: dirigere or referre aliquid ad aliquam rem
    • to deify a person: aliquem in deorum numerum referre, reponere
    • to consider as a god: aliquem in deorum numero referre
    • to book a debt: nomina facere or in tabulas referre
    • to put down to a man's credit: alicui acceptum referre aliquid (Verr. 2. 70. 170)
    • to retire into private life: in otium se referre (Fam. 99)
    • to consider a thing from a political point of view: ad rei publicae rationes aliquid referre
    • to record in the official tablets (Annales maximi): in album referre (De Or. 2. 12. 52)
    • to place a person's name on the list of the proscribed: in proscriptorum numerum referre aliquem (Rosc. Am. 11. 32)
    • to bring a question before the senate (of the presiding magistrate): ad senatum referre (Cic. Dom. 53. 136)
    • to enter a thing in the public records: in tabulas publicas referre aliquid
    • to put some one on the list of the accused: referre in reos aliquem
    • to retire (without turning one's back on the enemy): pedem referre
    • to gain a victory, win a battle: victoriam ferre, referre
  • Frederic M. Wheelock and Richard A. LaFleur (2000), Wheelock's Latin (6th edition), HarperCollins: New York, ISBN 0-06-095641-0