PIE roots

From re- +‎ ferō ‎(bear, carry).



referō ‎(present infinitive referre, perfect active rettulī, supine relātum); third conjugation, irregular

  1. I bear, bring, drive or carry back.
  2. I give back, give up, return, restore, pay back, repay.
  3. (of sound) I bring back, return, answer, echo.
  4. I bring back, restore, renew, revive, repeat.
  5. I say in return, respond, reply, answer.
  6. I repeat, report, announce, relate, recount, tell, say
  7. I make known officially, report, announce, notify, proclaim.


   Conjugation of refero (third conjugation, irregular, suppletive)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present referō refers refert referimus refertis referunt
imperfect referēbam referēbās referēbat referēbāmus referēbātis referēbant
future referam referēs referet referēmus referētis referent
perfect rettulī rettulistī rettulit rettulimus rettulistis rettulērunt, rettulēre
pluperfect rettuleram rettulerās rettulerat rettulerāmus rettulerātis rettulerant
future perfect rettulerō rettuleris rettulerit rettulerimus rettuleritis rettulerint
passive present referor referris, referre refertur referimur referiminī referuntur
imperfect referēbar referēbāris, referēbāre referēbātur referēbāmur referēbāminī referēbantur
future referar referēris, referēre referētur referēmur referēminī referentur
perfect relātus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect relātus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect relātus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present referam referās referat referāmus referātis referant
imperfect referrem referrēs referret referrēmus referrētis referrent
perfect rettulerim rettulerīs rettulerit rettulerīmus rettulerītis rettulerint
pluperfect rettulissem rettulissēs rettulisset rettulissēmus rettulissētis rettulissent
passive present referar referāris, referāre referātur referāmur referāminī referantur
imperfect referrer referrēris, referrēre referrētur referrēmur referrēminī referrentur
perfect relātus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect relātus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present refer referte
future refertō refertō refertōte referuntō
passive present referre referiminī
future refertor refertor referuntor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives referre rettulisse relātūrus esse referrī relātus esse relātum īrī
participles referēns relātūrus relātus referendus
verbal nouns gerund supine
nominative genitive dative/ablative accusative accusative ablative
referre referendī referendō referendum relātum relātū

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit


Usage notesEdit

  • The forms "rettul..." are also found as "retul...".


  • refero” in Charlton T. Lewis & Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1879.
  • Frederic M. Wheelock and Richard A. LaFleur (2000), Wheelock's Latin (6th edition), HarperCollins: New York, ISBN 0-06-095641-0
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