See also: Sacrum

English edit

 
The sacrum in the pelvic girdle
 
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Etymology edit

From Latin os sacrum (holy bone), a calque of Ancient Greek ἱερὸν ὀστέον (hieròn ostéon). Apparently so called either because the sacrum was the part of the animal offered in sacrifice or because of a putative belief that it is where a person's soul resides. A third explanation is that the term is a translation of Ancient Greek ἱερόν (hierón), which has two meanings: “holy, sacred”, and “big”[1]big being a more appropriate description of the sacrum — but compare.[2]

Pronunciation edit

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Noun edit

sacrum (plural sacra or sacrums)

  1. (anatomy) A large triangular bone at the base of the spine, located between the two ilia (wings of the pelvis) and formed from vertebrae that fuse in adulthood.
    Synonym: (obsolete) holy bone

Derived terms edit

Related terms edit

Translations edit

References edit

  1. ^ Voss, Herrlinger, Taschenbuch der Anatomie
  2. ^ Douglas Harper (2001–2024) “sacrum”, in Online Etymology Dictionary.

Anagrams edit

Latin edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From sacer (sacred, holy).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

sacrum n (genitive sacrī); second declension

  1. A holy or sacred object, e.g. statue, image, emblem, vessel, utensil.
    • 29 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Aeneid 2.293:
      “‘Sacra suōsque tibī commendat Troia penātēs.’”
      [Aeneas dreams that Hector tells him:] “‘Troy entrusts to you her sacred objects and household gods.’”
  2. A holy or sacred place, e.g. sanctuary, shrine, temple.
  3. A religious act or observance, e.g. a sacrifice, festival, rite.
    • 29 BCE – 19 BCE, Virgil, Aeneid 4.50:
      “Tū modo posce deōs veniam, sacrīsque litātīs, [...].”
      “You have only to ask the gods for their pardon, and after you have propitiated them with sacrifices, [...].”
      (In other words, Anna assumes that these sacrificial rites will earn Dido a favorable divine response.)
  4. Divine worship or religion.
    • c. 54-51 B.C.E., Cicero, De re publica, 2.7.13
      quo foedere et Sabinos in civitatem adscivit sacris conmunicatis et regnum suum cum illorum rege sociavit
      By this compact he admitted the Sabines into the city, gave them a participation in the religious ceremonies, and divided his power with their king.
  5. The private religious rites of a family.
    • c. 51 B.C.E., Cicero, De Legibus, 2.9.22
      sacra privata perpetua manento
      Let private devotions be perpetually practised.
  6. (only in plural) Poems (as sacred to the muse).
    • c. 8-18 AD, Ovid, Tristia, 4.10.19
      at mihi iam puero caelestia sacra placebant inque suum furtim Musa trahebat opus
      But even as a boy the heavenly poems delighted me, and the Muse was drawing me secretly to her work.
  7. (only in plural, post-Augustan) Secrets, mysteries.
    • 8 AD, Ovid, Metamorphoses, 7.709
      sacra tori coitusque novos thalamosque recentes primaque deserti referebam foedera lecti
      I told Aurora of our wedding secrets and all refreshing mysteries of coition – and my first union on my now-deserted couch.

Declension edit

Second-declension noun (neuter).

Case Singular Plural
Nominative sacrum sacra
Genitive sacrī sacrōrum
Dative sacrō sacrīs
Accusative sacrum sacra
Ablative sacrō sacrīs
Vocative sacrum sacra

Adjective edit

sacrum

  1. inflection of sacer:
    1. nominative/accusative/vocative neuter singular
    2. accusative masculine singular

Related terms edit

References edit

  • sacrum”, in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • sacrum”, in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • sacrum in Charles du Fresne du Cange’s Glossarium Mediæ et Infimæ Latinitatis (augmented edition with additions by D. P. Carpenterius, Adelungius and others, edited by Léopold Favre, 1883–1887)
  • sacrum in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré latin-français, Hachette.
  • Carl Meißner, Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to be present at divine service (of the people): sacris adesse
    • to be initiated into the mysteries of a cult: sacris initiari (Quintil. 12. 10. 14)
    • (ambiguous) ritual; ceremonial: sacra, res divinae, religiones, caerimoniae
    • (ambiguous) to sacrifice: sacra, sacrificium facere (ἱερὰ ῥέζειν), sacrificare
    • (ambiguous) to profane sacred rites: sacra polluere et violare
  • sacrum”, in William Smith, editor (1854, 1857), A Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, volume 1 & 2, London: Walton and Maberly

Polish edit

 
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Etymology edit

Unadapted borrowing from Latin sacrum. Doublet of sakra.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

sacrum n (indeclinable)

  1. (anthropology) sacrum (the sacred world)
    Antonym: profanum

Further reading edit

  • sacrum in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Romanian edit

Etymology edit

Borrowed from French sacrum.

Noun edit

sacrum n (uncountable)

  1. sacrum

Declension edit