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LatvianEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Baltic *tu-was, from Proto-Indo-European *tu- “there, here,” from the pronominal stem *to- (whence tas (that), q.v.); cf. Old Church Slavonic тоу (tu, there), Old East Slavic ту (tu, there, here), Russian, Ukrainian тут (tut, here), Belarusian ту́та (túta), Bulgarian тука (tuka, here, hither), Czech tu, tuto (here), Polish tu, tuta, tutaj (here), tuż (immediately; next door). Cognates include Lithuanian tuvi (now, immediately), Old Prussian tawischen, tawischen, tawisen (closer, nearer) (accusative).[1]

PronunciationEdit

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AdjectiveEdit

tuvs (definite tuvais, comparative tuvāks, superlative vistuvākais, adverb tuvu)

  1. close, near, nearby (located, living, coming from, happening in a place that is not far)
    tuva darbavietaa nearby workplace
    tuva atbalss, gaismaa close echo, light
    aiziet līdz tuvajam ezeramto go to a nearby lake
    apsēsties uz tuvākā krēslato sit on the closest, nearest chair
    kinoteātris atradās tuvākajā šķērsielā, un Aleksandrs Papīrs iegāja tajāthe cinema was situated in the closer street, and Aleksandrs Papīrs entered it (= street)
    apvārsnis šķita tuvs, gandrīz ar roku taustāmsthe horizon seemed near, almost touchable with (one's) hand(s)
    Aldona cepa tortes tuvākiem un tālākiem kaimiņiemAldona baked pies to (our) closer and farther neighbors
    drīz vien Mazuriju durvis sāka virināt tuvi un tāli ļaudissoon people (from) near and far began to open and close the doors of Mazurija
  2. (of rides, walks) near, short (which can be completed in relatively short time)
    tuvs pārgājiensa short (lit. close, near) stroll, walk
    līdz skolai ir tuvs brauciensto the school it is a short (lit. close, near) ride
  3. near, recent (separated from the present by a short time interval)
    tuva pagātne, nāktonerecent past, future
    tuvas rīta ausmasthe near (= coming) morning dawn
    tuvākajās nedēļāsin the nearest (= next, coming) weeks
    tuvs priekštecisnear, close predecessor
    gatavoties tuvajai ziemaito get ready for the near (= coming) winter
    un mērnieku mēs tev atsūtīsim tuvākajās dienāsand we'll send you a (land) surveyor in the nearest (= next, coming) days
  4. close, similar (sharing common features, similarities; related)
    tematiski tuvi daiļdarbithematically close works of fiction
    funkcionāli tuvas metodesfunctionally close, similar methods
    tuvas koku sugasclose tree species
    tuvas valodu grupasclose (= closely related) language groups
    tuva radniecībaclose (kinship) relation
    sengrieķu zinātnē algebras idejām vistuvākais bija Diofanta traktāts “Aritmētika”in Ancient Greek science, the (work) closest to the ideas of algebra was Diophantus' treatise “Arithmetics”
    antropologus pārsteidza fakts, ka agrīnie neandertālieši pēc savas uzbūves bijuši tuvāki cilvēkam nekā vēlīnās formasanthropologists were surprised by the fact that early Neanderthals were closer to (modern) people by their (physical) structure than later forms (of Neanderthals)
    Līze izrīkoja mātei mazas bēres, kurās salūdza vistuvākos radusLīze organized a small funeral for (her) mother, to which (only) the closest relatives were invited
  5. (usually superlative, of people) closest, nearest (with whom there are direct important connections, e.g. at work, in an activity)
    tuvākā priekšniecībaclosest superiors
    tuvākais darba vadītājsclosest advisor
    progresīvie skolotāji bija iemīlējuši Jesena “Jaunības Tekas” un līdz ar tām varbūt arī mani kā to tuvāko līdzstrādniekuthe progressive teachers had fallen in love with Jesens's “Youthful Path” and maybe also with me as his closest collaborator
  6. (of people, their relations) close (well-known, with whom there is a friendly relation; expressing such a relation)
    tuvs draugs, kolēģisclose friend, colleague
    tuvs studiju biedrsclose study companion
    tuvi paziņasclose acquaintances
    tuva draudzībaclose friendship
    viņi kļuva tuvithey became close (= friendly, intimate)
    viņa ilgi klīda pa šaurajām ieliņām, tik tuvām un aprastām kopš agras bērnībasshe wandered for a while by the narrow little streets, so close and familiar since (her) early childhood
  7. (usually comparative) fuller, better, closer, further, more detailed
    tuvāki paskaidrojumifurther explanations
    dabūt tuvākas ziņasto obain further information
    tuvāks notikuma aprakstsa closer, more detailed description of the event

DeclensionEdit

AntonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Karulis, Konstantīns (1992), “tuvs”, in Latviešu Etimoloģijas Vārdnīca (in Latvian), Rīga: AVOTS, →ISBN