further

EnglishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Middle English further, forther, from Old English furþor (further, adverb), from Proto-Germanic *furþera, from Proto-Germanic *furþeraz, from Proto-Indo-European *per- (a common preposition), equivalent to fore + -ther (a vestigial comparative ending still present in such words as other, either, whether, and, in altered form, in after); or as sometimes stated, as forth +‎ -er. Cognate with Scots forder, furder, Saterland Frisian foarder, West Frisian fierder, Dutch verder, German fürder.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

  • farther (See also the usage notes below.)

VerbEdit

further (third-person singular simple present furthers, present participle furthering, simple past and past participle furthered)

  1. (transitive) To help forward; to assist.
    • 1885, Richard F. Burton, The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night, Night 558:
      Upon this he brought me a cotton bag and giving it to me, said, "Take this bag and fill it with pebbles from the beach and go forth with a company of the townsfolk to whom I will give a charge respecting thee. Do as they do and belike thou shalt gain what may further thy return voyage to thy native land."
  2. (transitive) To encourage growth; to support progress or growth of something; to promote.
    Further the economy.
    to further the peace process

Derived termsEdit

TranslationsEdit

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.

AdjectiveEdit

further (not comparable)

  1. (comparative form of far) More distant; relatively distant.
    See those two lampposts? Run to the further one.
    He was standing at the further end of the corridor.
  2. More, additional.
    I have one further comment to make.
    • 2011 November 3, Chris Bevan, “Rubin Kazan 1 - 0 Tottenham”, in BBC Sport[1]:
      This time Cudicini was left helpless when Natcho stepped up to expertly curl the ball into the top corner.
      That was the cue for further pressure from the Russian side and it took further Cudicini saves to keep the score down.

Derived termsEdit

TranslationsEdit

AdverbEdit

further (not comparable)

  1. (comparative form of far) To, at or over a greater distance in space, time or other extent.
    I can run further than you.
    I live a little further out of town.
    • 1918, W. B. Maxwell, chapter 7, in The Mirror and the Lamp:
      “A very welcome, kind, useful present, that means to the parish. By the way, Hopkins, let this go no further. We don't want the tale running round that a rich person has arrived. Churchill, my dear fellow, we have such greedy sharks, and wolves in lamb's clothing. […]”
  2. (comparative form of far) To a greater extent or degree.
    Of the two civilisations, this one was further advanced.
  3. Beyond what is already stated or is already the case.
    Chapter 10 further explains the ideas introduced in Chapter 9.
    Don't confuse things further.
    Further, affiant sayeth naught. (A formal statement ending a deposition or affidavit, immediately preceding the affiant's signature.)
    • 2013 July 26, Leo Hickman, “How algorithms rule the world”, in The Guardian Weekly, volume 189, number 7, page 26:
      The use of algorithms in policing is one example of their increasing influence on our lives. [] who, if anyone, is policing their use[?] Such concerns were sharpened further by the continuing revelations about how the US National Security Agency (NSA) has been using algorithms to help it interpret the colossal amounts of data it has collected from its covert dragnet of international telecommunications.
  4. (conjunctive) Also; in addition; furthermore; moreover.
    It is overlong, and further, it makes no sense.
    • 1924, Aristotle, W. D. Ross (translator), Metaphysics, Book 1, Part 6,
      Further, besides sensible things and Forms he says there are the objects of mathematics, which occupy an intermediate position, [] .
  5. (in the phrase 'further to') Following on (from).
    Further to our recent telephone call, I am writing to clarify certain points raised.
    This example is further to the one on page 17.
    • 2006 February 14, European Court of Human Rights, Turek v. Slovakia[2], number 57986/00, marginal 110:
      The Court notes that the applicant’s registration by the StB as their “agent” lies at the heart of the application. Although the Court has no jurisdiction ratione temporis to examine the registration as such, it observes that, further to his registration, the applicant was issued with a negative security clearance and his name and reputation were called into question.

Derived termsEdit

TranslationsEdit

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.

Usage notesEdit

In respect of general adjectival and adverbial use, some usage guides distinguish farther and further, with farther referring to distance, and further referring to degree or time.[1] Others, such as the OED, recommend farther as a comparative form of far and further for use when it is not comparative.[2] However, most authorities consider the two interchangeable in most or all circumstances,[3] and historically they have not been distinguished.[1][4]

farther is uncommon or old-fashioned in certain subsidiary senses, such as the adjectival sense of "more, additional" and the adverbial sense "moreover". It is virtually never used as a replacement for "further" in the phrase "further to".

In the verb sense, further greatly predominates over farther in modern English.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit