See also: vocò, voĉo, and -voco



Borrowing from English voice, French voix, Italian voce and Spanish voz. Compare Esperanto voĉo.



voco (plural voci)

  1. voice
  2. (figuratively) expression of opinion

Derived termsEdit




  1. first-person singular present indicative of vocare



Alternative formsEdit


Denominal from the oblique stem *wokʷ- of vōx (voice, speech).



vocō (present infinitive vocāre, perfect active vocāvī, supine vocātum); first conjugation

  1. (transitive) I call, summon, beckon (with one's voice).
    • c. 37 BCE – 30 BCE, Virgil, Georgicon 4.265:
      [] ultro / hortantem et fessas ad pabula nota vocantem
      [] freely / calling them and exhorting the weary insects to eat their familiar food.
    1. (transitive, by extension) I invoke, call upon (a person, especially a god)
    2. (transitive, by extension) I summon, convene, call together.
      • 27 BCE – 25 BCE, Titus Livius, Ab urbe condita libri 26.1:
        Cn. Fuluius Centumalus P. Sulpicius Galba consules cum idibus Martiis magistratum inissent, senatu in Capitolium uocato, de re publica, de administratione belli, de prouinciis exercitibusque patres consuluerunt.
        When the consuls Gnaeus Fulvius Centumalus and Publius Sulpicius Galba took up the magistracy on the Ides of March, they summoned the senate to the Capitoline Hill and consulted the senators on issues regarding the state, the handling of the war, the provinces and the armies.
  2. (transitive) I name, designate
  3. I bring or put (into a state or condition)
    vocare in dubiumto call into question


   Conjugation of vocō (first conjugation)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present vocō vocās vocat vocāmus vocātis vocant
imperfect vocābam vocābās vocābat vocābāmus vocābātis vocābant
future vocābō vocābis vocābit vocābimus vocābitis vocābunt
perfect vocāvī vocāvistī, vocāstī2 vocāvit vocāvimus vocāvistis, vocāstis2 vocāvērunt, vocāvēre
pluperfect vocāveram vocāverās vocāverat vocāverāmus vocāverātis vocāverant
future perfect vocāverō vocāveris vocāverit vocāverimus vocāveritis vocāverint
passive present vocor vocāris, vocāre vocātur vocāmur vocāminī vocantur
imperfect vocābar vocābāris, vocābāre vocābātur vocābāmur vocābāminī vocābantur
future vocābor vocāberis, vocābere vocābitur vocābimur vocābiminī vocābuntur
perfect vocātus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect vocātus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect vocātus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present vocem vocēs vocet vocēmus vocētis vocent
imperfect vocārem vocārēs vocāret vocārēmus vocārētis vocārent
perfect vocāverim vocāverīs vocāverit vocāverīmus vocāverītis vocāverint
pluperfect vocāvissem, vocāssem2 vocāvissēs, vocāssēs2 vocāvisset, vocāsset2 vocāvissēmus, vocāssēmus2 vocāvissētis, vocāssētis2 vocāvissent, vocāssent2
passive present vocer vocēris, vocēre vocētur vocēmur vocēminī vocentur
imperfect vocārer vocārēris, vocārēre vocārētur vocārēmur vocārēminī vocārentur
perfect vocātus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect vocātus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present vocā vocāte
future vocātō vocātō vocātōte vocantō
passive present vocāre vocāminī
future vocātor vocātor vocantor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives vocāre vocāvisse, vocāsse2 vocātūrum esse vocārī, vocārier1 vocātum esse vocātum īrī
participles vocāns vocātūrus vocātus vocandus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
vocandī vocandō vocandum vocandō vocātum vocātū

1The present passive infinitive in -ier is a rare poetic form which is attested for this verb.
2At least one rare poetic syncopated perfect form is attested.

Derived termsEdit

Related termsEdit


  • Catalan: vogar (possibly)
  • Friulian: vogâ (possibly)
  • Galician: vogar (possibly)
  • Italian: vocare, vogare (possibly)
  • Occitan: vogar (possibly)
  • Old French: voucher, vochier
    • English: vouch (borrowing)
  • Portuguese: vogar (possibly)
  • Sardinian: abogai, bogai (possibly)
  • Spanish: bogar (possibly)
  • Sicilian: vucari (possibly)
  • Venetian: vogar (possibly)


  • voco in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • voco in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • voco in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meißner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[1], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • the middle ages: media quae vocatur aetas
    • to be ruined, undone: ad exitium vocari
    • to endanger, imperil a person or thing: aliquem, aliquid in periculum (discrimen) adducere, vocare
    • to throw doubt upon a thing: in dubium vocare
    • to make a thing the subject of controversy: in controversiam vocare, adducere aliquid
    • to be contested, become the subject of debate: in controversiam vocari, adduci, venire (De Or. 2. 72. 291)
    • to become the object of suspicion: in suspicionem vocari, cadere
    • to make a person odious, unpopular: in invidiam, odium (alicuius) vocare aliquem
    • to invite some one to dinner: aliquem vocare, invitare ad cenam
    • to go through accounts, make a valuation of a thing: ad calculos vocare aliquid (Amic. 16. 58)
    • to call a meeting of the senate: senatum vocare, convocare
    • to summon some one before the court: in ius, in iudicium vocare aliquem
    • (ambiguous) to speak, utter a sound: vocem mittere (sonitum reddere of things)
    • (ambiguous) to lower one's voice: vocem summittere
    • (ambiguous) to prevent some one from speaking: vocem intercludere (Just. 11. 8. 4)
    • (ambiguous) to let fall an expression: voces iacere (Sall. Iug. 11)
    • (ambiguous) insulting expressions: voces (verba) contumeliosae
  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, →ISBN, page 691f