See also: آنا and انا

Arabic edit

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ʔa.na/
  • IPA(key): /ʔa.naː/ (in pausa)
  • (file)

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Semitic *ʔanāku, from Proto-Afroasiatic *ˀanāku, hence also Proto-Berber *ənăkkʷ (Kabyle nekk) and Egyptian jnk (Coptic ⲁⲛⲟⲕ (anok)).

Cognate with Hebrew אני (aní).

Pronoun edit

أَنَا (ʔana, ʔanām or f (enclitic form ـِيَ (-iya) or ـِي () or ـنِي (-nī) or ـنِيَ (-niya))

  1. I (first person singular subject pronoun)
Usage notes edit

أَنَا (ʔanā) has four enclitic forms which are employed in different contexts and are generally not interchangeable. The enclitic forms ـنِي (-nī) and ـنِيَ (-niya) are attached to verbs, prepositions ending in نْ (n) with no final vowel (e.g., مِنْ (min) and عَنْ (ʕan)), and the sisters of إِنَّ (ʔinna) except لَعَلَّ (laʕalla). The forms ـِي () and ـيَ (-ya) are used elsewhere, but in cases where ـِي () would be preceded by a long vowel, only ـيَ (-ya) is used.

  1. سَاعِدْنِيsāʕidhelp me
  2. كِتَابِيkitābīmy book
  3. عَلَيَّʕalayyaon me
Descendants edit
  • Egyptian Arabic: أنا (ʔana)
  • Gulf Arabic: آنا (āna)
  • Maltese: jien, jiena
  • Moroccan Arabic: آنا (ʔāna), أنا (ʔana)
  • South Levantine Arabic: أنا (ʔana)
  • Tunisian Arabic: آنا (ʔāna)
See also edit
Arabic personal pronouns
Isolated nominative pronouns
singular dual plural
1st person أَنَا (ʔanā) نَحْنُ (naḥnu)
2nd person m أَنْتَ (ʔanta) أَنْتُمَا (ʔantumā) أَنْتُمْ (ʔantum)
f أَنْتِ (ʔanti) أَنْتُنَّ (ʔantunna)
3rd person m هُوَ (huwa) هُمَا (humā) هُمْ (hum), هُمُ (humu)1
f هِيَ (hiya) هُنَّ (hunna)
Isolated accusative pronouns
singular dual plural
1st person إِيَّايَ (ʔiyyāya) إِيَّانَا (ʔiyyānā)
2nd person m إِيَّاكَ (ʔiyyāka) إِيَّاكُمَا (ʔiyyākumā) إِيَّاكُم (ʔiyyākum)
f إِيَّاكِ (ʔiyyāki) إِيَّاكُنَّ (ʔiyyākunna)
3rd person m إِيَّاهُ (ʔiyyāhu) إِيَّاهُمَا (ʔiyyāhumā) إِيَّاهُمْ (ʔiyyāhum)
f إِيَّاهَا (ʔiyyāhā) إِيَّاهُنَّ (ʔiyyāhunna)
Enclitic accusative and genitive pronouns
singular dual plural
1st person ـنِي (-nī), ـنِيَ (-niya), ـي (-y), ـيَ (-ya)2 ـنَا (-nā)
2nd person m ـكَ (-ka) ـكُمَا (-kumā) ـكُم (-kum)
f ـكِ (-ki) ـكُنَّ (-kunna)
3rd person m ـهُ (-hu), ـهِ (-hi)3 ـهُمَا (-humā), ـهِمَا (-himā)3 ـهُم (-hum), ـهِم (-him)3
f ـهَا (-hā) ـهُنَّ (-hunna), ـهِنَّ (-hinna)3
1. هُمْ (hum) becomes هُمُ (humu) before the definite article الـ (al--).
2. Specifically, ـنِي (-nī, me) is attached to verbs, but ـِي () or ـيَ (-ya, my) is attached to nouns. In the latter case, ـيَ (-ya) is attached to nouns whose construct state ends in a long vowel or diphthong (e.g. in the sound masculine plural and the dual), while ـِي () is attached to nouns whose construct state ends in a short vowel, in which case that vowel is elided (e.g. in the sound feminine plural, as well as the singular and broken plural of most nouns). Furthermore, of the masculine sound plural is assimilated to before ـيَ (-ya) (presumably, -aw of masculine defective -an plurals is similarly assimilated to -ay). Prepositions use ـِي () or ـيَ (-ya), even though in this case it has the meaning of “me” rather than “my”. The sisters of inna can use either form (e.g. إِنَّنِي (ʔinnanī) or إِنِّي (ʔinnī)).
3. ـهِـ (-hi-) occurs after -i, , or -ay, and ـهُـ (-hu-) elsewhere (after -a, , -u, , -aw).

Etymology 2 edit

From أَنَا (ʔanā, I), calque of German Ich, possibly through ego.

Noun edit

أَنَا (ʔanāf or m

  1. (psychology) ego
Declension edit

References edit

  • Wehr, Hans (1979), “أنا”, in J. Milton Cowan, editor, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 4th edition, Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services, →ISBN

Chadian Arabic edit

Etymology edit

From Arabic أَنَا (ʔanā).

Pronoun edit

أنا (ʔanam or f

  1. I

Egyptian Arabic edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Arabic أَنَا (ʔanā).

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

أنا (ʔanam or f

  1. I

See also edit

Moroccan Arabic edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Arabic أَنَا (ʔanā).

Pronoun edit

أنا (ʔanam or f

  1. Alternative form of آنا (ʔāna): I (first person singular subject pronoun)
See also edit
Moroccan Arabic personal pronouns
Singular Plural
1st person آنا (ʔāna), أنا (ʔana) حنا (ḥnā)
2nd person m انت (ntā), انتينا (ntīna), انتين (ntīn) انتوما (ntūma), انتوم (ntūm)
f انت (ntī), انتينا (ntīna), انتين (ntīn)
3rd person m هو (huwwa) هوما (hūma), هوم (hūm)
f هي (hiyya)

Etymology 2 edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Adverb edit

أنا (ʔana)

  1. (interrogative) which?

North Levantine Arabic edit

Etymology edit

From Arabic أَنَا (ʔanā).

Pronoun edit

أنا (ʾanam or f

  1. I (first person singular subject pronoun)
    Enclitic forms: ـي (-i/-y), ـني (-ni)

See also edit

North Levantine Arabic personal pronouns
Singular Plural
1st person أنا (ʔana) نحنا (niḥna)
2nd person m انت (ʔinta, ʔinte) انتو (ʔintu)
f انتي (ʔinti)
3rd person m هو (huwwe) هن (hinne) / هنن (hinnen)
f هي (hiyye)

South Levantine Arabic edit

Etymology edit

From Arabic أَنَا (ʔanā).

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ʔa.na/, [ˈʔa.na]
  • (file)

Pronoun edit

أنا (ʔanam or f (enclitic form ـي (-i) or ـني (-ni))

  1. I (first-person singular subject pronoun)

See also edit

South Levantine Arabic personal pronouns
Singular Plural
1st person أنا (ʔana) احنا (ʔiḥna)
2nd person m انت (ʔinta) انتو (ʔintu)
f انتي (ʔinti)
3rd person m هو (huwwe) هم (homme)
f هي (hiyye)