Arabic

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Etymology 1

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Pronunciation

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Pronoun

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هُنَّ (hunnaf pl

  1. they (feminine plural subject pronoun)
See also
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Arabic personal pronouns
Isolated nominative pronouns
singular dual plural
1st person أَنَا (ʔanā) نَحْنُ (naḥnu)
2nd person m أَنْتَ (ʔanta) أَنْتُمَا (ʔantumā) أَنْتُمْ (ʔantum)
f أَنْتِ (ʔanti) أَنْتُنَّ (ʔantunna)
3rd person m هُوَ (huwa) هُمَا (humā) هُمْ (hum), هُمُ (humu)1
f هِيَ (hiya) هُنَّ (hunna)
Isolated accusative pronouns
singular dual plural
1st person إِيَّايَ (ʔiyyāya) إِيَّانَا (ʔiyyānā)
2nd person m إِيَّاكَ (ʔiyyāka) إِيَّاكُمَا (ʔiyyākumā) إِيَّاكُم (ʔiyyākum)
f إِيَّاكِ (ʔiyyāki) إِيَّاكُنَّ (ʔiyyākunna)
3rd person m إِيَّاهُ (ʔiyyāhu) إِيَّاهُمَا (ʔiyyāhumā) إِيَّاهُمْ (ʔiyyāhum)
f إِيَّاهَا (ʔiyyāhā) إِيَّاهُنَّ (ʔiyyāhunna)
Enclitic accusative and genitive pronouns
singular dual plural
1st person ـنِي (-nī), ـنِيَ (-niya), ـي (-y), ـيَ (-ya)2 ـنَا (-nā)
2nd person m ـكَ (-ka) ـكُمَا (-kumā) ـكُم (-kum)
f ـكِ (-ki) ـكُنَّ (-kunna)
3rd person m ـهُ (-hu), ـهِ (-hi)3 ـهُمَا (-humā), ـهِمَا (-himā)3 ـهُم (-hum), ـهِم (-him)3
f ـهَا (-hā) ـهُنَّ (-hunna), ـهِنَّ (-hinna)3
1. هُمْ (hum) becomes هُمُ (humu) before the definite article الـ (al--).
2. Specifically, ـنِي (-nī, me) is attached to verbs, but ـِي () or ـيَ (-ya, my) is attached to nouns. In the latter case, ـيَ (-ya) is attached to nouns whose construct state ends in a long vowel or diphthong (e.g. in the sound masculine plural and the dual), while ـِي () is attached to nouns whose construct state ends in a short vowel, in which case that vowel is elided (e.g. in the sound feminine plural, as well as the singular and broken plural of most nouns). Furthermore, of the masculine sound plural is assimilated to before ـيَ (-ya) (presumably, -aw of masculine defective -an plurals is similarly assimilated to -ay). Prepositions use ـِي () or ـيَ (-ya), even though in this case it has the meaning of “me” rather than “my”. The sisters of inna can use either form (e.g. إِنَّنِي (ʔinnanī) or إِنِّي (ʔinnī)).
3. ـهِـ (-hi-) occurs after -i, , or -ay, and ـهُـ (-hu-) elsewhere (after -a, , -u, , -aw).

Pronoun

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ـهُنّ or ـهِنّ (-hunn or -hinnf pl

  1. their, them (feminine plural bound object pronoun)

Etymology 2

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Pronunciation 1

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Verb

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هَنْ (han) (form I)

  1. second-person masculine singular active imperative of وَهَنَ (wahana)
  2. second-person masculine singular active imperative of وَهِنَ (wahina)

Pronunciation 2

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Verb

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هِنْ (hin) (form I)

  1. second-person masculine singular active imperative of وَهَنَ (wahana)

Pronunciation 3

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Verb

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هَنَّ (hanna) (form I)

  1. second-person feminine plural active imperative of وَهَنَ (wahana)
  2. second-person feminine plural active imperative of وَهِنَ (wahina)

Pronunciation 4

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Verb

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هِنَّ (hinna) (form I)

  1. second-person feminine plural active imperative of وَهَنَ (wahana)

Etymology 3

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Alteration of هَمّ (hamm, concern).

Noun

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هَن (hanm (construct state هَنُو (hanū) or هَنُ (hanu), dual هَنَان (hanān) or هَنَوَان (hanawān), plural هَنُون (hanūn), feminine هَنَة (hana)) (obsolete)

  1. thing, doofer
  2. self, own
  3. genital, pudendum
    هَنُوكَ يَلْزَمُ سَتْرُهُhanūka yalzamu satru-hūYour noonie must be hidden.
Declension
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Derived terms
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See also
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Etymology 4

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Alteration of حَنَّ (ḥanna).

Verb

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هَنَّ (hanna) I, non-past يَهِنُّ‎ (yahinnu) (obsolete, dialectal)

  1. to groan from desire [+ إِلَى (object)]
Conjugation
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References

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  • Freytag, Georg (1835) “هن”, in Lexicon arabico-latinum praesertim ex Djeuharii Firuzabadiique et aliorum Arabum operibus adhibitis Golii quoque et aliorum libris confectum[1] (in Latin), volume 3, Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, page 411b
  • Freytag, Georg (1837) “هن”, in Lexicon arabico-latinum praesertim ex Djeuharii Firuzabadiique et aliorum Arabum operibus adhibitis Golii quoque et aliorum libris confectum[2] (in Latin), volume 4, Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, pages 414b–415a
  • Kazimirski, Albin de Biberstein (1860) “هن”, in Dictionnaire arabe-français contenant toutes les racines de la langue arabe, leurs dérivés, tant dans l’idiome vulgaire que dans l’idiome littéral, ainsi que les dialectes d’Alger et de Maroc[3] (in French), volume 2, Paris: Maisonneuve et Cie, page 1450a
  • Kazimirski, Albin de Biberstein (1860) “هن”, in Dictionnaire arabe-français contenant toutes les racines de la langue arabe, leurs dérivés, tant dans l’idiome vulgaire que dans l’idiome littéral, ainsi que les dialectes d’Alger et de Maroc[4] (in French), volume 2, Paris: Maisonneuve et Cie, pages 1454a–b

Iraqi Arabic

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Etymology

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From Arabic ـهُنَّ (-hunna) or ـهِنَّ (-hinna).

Suffix

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ـهِن (hinpl

  1. Enclitic form of هنه (hinna)
  2. they, them, their

North Levantine Arabic

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Etymology 1

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Partly a continuation of Arabic هُنَّ (hunna, they, feminine), but considerably influenced by a pronoun borrowed from Western Aramaic[1][2] and cognate to Classical Syriac ܗܢܘܢ (hennon, they). The final e vowel may have also arisen in analogy to the development of the other third-person pronouns: هو (huwwe, he), هي (hiyye, she), and هم (humme, them, now obsolete).

هن (hinne) superficially resembles Arabic هُنَّ (hunna) enough that any other origin might appear questionable. However, some problems show up if we discard the Aramaic altogether:

Behnstedt points out that Aramaic offers an elegant solution to these problems, but notes that modern Syrian forms like هني (hunni) from the vicinity of Homs and هنن (hunnin) in nearby Manin provide reason to account for influence from the Arabic pronoun as well.

The spelling هن is in direct association with Standard Arabic هُنَّ (hunna), while the alternative spellings follow the word's pronunciation.

Alternative forms

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Pronoun

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هن (hinnepl or هنن (hinnen)

  1. they
    Enclitic form: ـهن (-(h/w/y)un)
See also
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North Levantine Arabic personal pronouns
Singular Plural
1st person أنا (ʔana) نحنا (niḥna)
2nd person m انت (ʔinta, ʔinte) انتو (ʔintu)
f انتي (ʔinti)
3rd person m هو (huwwe) هن (hinne) / هنن (hinnen)
f هي (hiyye)

Etymology 2

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From Arabic ـهُنَّ (-hunna) or ـهِنَّ (-hinna).

Alternative forms

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Suffix

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ـهن (-un, -hun, -wun, -yunpl

  1. Enclitic form of هن (hinne) or هنن (hinnen)
  2. they, them, their
Usage notes
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  • The pronunciation in careful speech is “-hun”, but the “h” is in the process of being lost. Some speakers currently use “-un” after a consonant and “-hun” after a vowel or diphthong, and some others use “-yun” after vowels and diphthongs instead, but it's most-common for it to assimilate to the preceding sound:
    • “-un” after a consonant
    • “-hun” or “-un” after the vowel “a”
    • “-wun” after the vowel “o”/“u”
    • “-yun” after the vowel “e”/“i” and the diphthong “ay”
  • It might also be spelled as ـن when it's pronounced as “-un”, “-wun” or “-yun”.
  • The form with “h” attracts stress to the syllable before it automatically. The form with a dropped “h” still behaves this way for some speakers, but others allow the automatic stress rules to take precedent:
    • كَتَبهُن (he wrote them) can only be pronounced katábhun, but كَتَبُن (he wrote them) can be either katábun or kátabun.
    • جَرِّبهُن (try them!, masculine imperative) can be pronounced jarríbhun or jarríbun, and جَرّبُن (try them!) can be either jarríbun or járrbun.
  • In Lebanon, some speakers (typically older, rural speakers) realize this enclitic pronoun as hinne in some cases.
    • كِيفهن (he wrote them), can be pronounced as kīf(h)un or kīfhinne.
See also
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North Levantine Arabic enclitic pronouns
Singular Plural
after consonant after vowel
1st person after verb ـني (-ni) ـنا (-na)
else ـِي (-i) ـي (-y)
2nd person m ـَك (-ak) ـك (-k) ـكُن (-kun)
f ـِك (-ek) ـكِ (-ki)
3rd person m ـُه (-o) ـه (-h) ـهُن (-(h/w/y)un)
f ـها (-(h/w/y)a)

References

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  1. ^ Peter Behnstedt (1991) “Noch einmal zum Problem der Personalpronomina hənne (3. Pl.), -kon (2. Pl.) und -hon (3. Pl.) in den syrisch-libanesischen Dialekten”, in Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft, volume 141, number 2, pages 235-252
  2. ^ Stephan Procházka (2014) “Feminine and Masculine Plural Pronouns in Modern Arabic Dialects”, in Tal Davidovich, Ablahad Lahdo, and Torkel Lindquist, editors, From Tur Abdin to Hadramawt: Semitic Studies Festschrift in Honour of Bo Isaksson on the occasion of his retirement, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, pages 129–148

South Levantine Arabic

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Etymology 1

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Partially borrowed from an Aramaic pronoun cognate to Classical Syriac ܗܢܘܢ (hennon). Compare with North Levantine Arabic هن (hinne).

The lack of a second ـن (-n), unlike the Aramaic, is due to influence from the form of Arabic هُنَّ (hunna, they, feminine plural) and analogy with the final vowels of other third-person pronouns: هو (huwwe, he), هي (hiyye), and possibly the aforementioned هم (humme).

The spelling هن is in direct association with Standard Arabic هُنَّ (hunna), while the alternative spellings follow the word's pronunciation.

Alternative forms

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Pronoun

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هنّ (hinnepl

  1. (Galilee) they
    Synonym: هم (humme)
    Enclitic form: ـهن (-hen)

Etymology 2

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From Arabic ـهُنَّ (-hunna) or ـهِنَّ (-hinna).

Suffix

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ـهن (-henpl

  1. Enclitic form of هن (hinne)
  2. (Galilee) they, them, their
    Synonym: ـهم (-hom)