See also: أل, آل, and إل

Arabic edit

 
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Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Uncertain; Rubin posits that this is a reduced form of the lost singular of Arabicأُولَى(ʔulā, these); compare rare Hebrewאֵל(el, these) and Akkadian 𒌌𒇻𒌑𒌝 (ullûm, that). In this hypothesis, original initial /u/ would be lost due to low stress; the initial /a/ found in phrase-initial position would thus be prosthetic.[1]

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /al-/, /-l-/
  • (file)

Article edit

اَلْ (al-)

  1. the

Usage notes edit

  • The /l/ of this prefix assimilates to and geminates the first letter of the base word when it begins with a traditionally-coronal consonant, natively called sun letters: ⁧ت(t), ⁧ث(), ⁧د(d), ⁧ذ(), ⁧ر(r), ⁧ز(z), ⁧س(s), ⁧ش(š), ⁧ص(), ⁧ض(), ⁧ط(), ⁧ظ(), ⁧ل(l), and ⁧ن(n). This does not traditionally include ⁧ج(j), as its original pronunciation was palatal rather than coronal, but in regions where it is pronounced /d͡ʒ ~ ʒ/ it can be found assimilating the definite article as well. The ⁧ل(l)’s assimilation is not observed by the article's spelling, which is invariably ⁧ال(al-); however, in fully vocalised texts, a shadda is written over the following sun letter to reflect gemination.
  • The initial vowel a- is only pronounced when the article occurs either after a pause, at the beginning of an utterance, or after the preposition ⁧مِنْ(min). Otherwise, the article consists solely of the coronal consonant preceded by the final vowel of the previous word; if this previous word is consonant-final, then i is used as a linking vowel.

Descendants edit

  • Egyptian Arabic: ⁧ال(el)
  • Gulf Arabic: ⁧ال(il)
  • Maltese: il-
  • Moroccan Arabic: ⁧ال(el)

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Aaron Rubin (2005), “Definite Articles”, in Studies in Semitic Grammaticalization, Brill, →DOI, →ISBN, pages 77-78

Brahui edit

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

Inherited from Proto-Dravidian *eli. Cognate with Kannada ಇಲಿ (ili), Kodava ಎಲಿ (eli), Gondi యెల్లి (yelli), Tamil எலி (eli), Tulu ಎಲಿ (eli), Telugu ఎలుక (eluka) and Malayalam എലി (eli).

 
A mouse

Pronunciation edit

IPA(key): /al/

Noun edit

اَل⁩ (al)

  1. mouse
    Synonym:مُوش(mūś)

Bulgar edit

Bulgar cardinal numbers
 <  40 50 100  > 
    Cardinal : ⁧ال

Alternative forms edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Turkic *ellig.

Numeral edit

الُّ⁩ (ellü)

  1. fifty

Descendants edit

References edit

  • Tekin, Talât (1988) Volga Bulgar kitabeleri ve Volga Bulgarcası [Volga Bulgarian Ephitaphs and Volga Bulgarian Language]‎[1] (in Turkish), Ankara: Türk Tarih Kurumu Basımevi, →ISBN, pages 90-91, 144-145, 198

Egyptian Arabic edit

Article edit

الـ (el-)

  1. the

Gulf Arabic edit

Pronunciation edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Arabicاَلْ(al-).

Article edit

اِلـ (il-)

  1. the definite article; the

Etymology 2 edit

Contraction of ⁧الي(illi, the relative clause), itself a contraction of Arabicاَلَّذِي⁩ m (allaḏī) and ⁧اَلَّتِي⁩ f (allatī)

Pronoun edit

اِلـ (il-)

  1. (colloquial) the relative clause; that, who, which, etc
    Synonym:الي(illi)

Etymology 3 edit

Could be directly from Arabicإِلَىٰ(ʔilā).

Preposition edit

اِلـ (il-)

  1. (colloquial) to (destination)
    Synonyms: (colloquial)لي(), (colloquial)ل(li)
Alternative forms edit

Hijazi Arabic edit

Etymology edit

From Arabicاَلْ(al-).

Pronunciation edit

Article edit

الـ (al-)

  1. the definite article; the

Kalami edit

Adjective edit

ال⁩ (alm

  1. wet

Karakhanid edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Turkic *o-l (that). Cognate with Turkish o (he, she, it; that) and Chinese (, “that”).

Pronoun edit

ال⁩ (ol)

  1. (nominative case) he, she, it
  2. (nominative case) that

Determiner edit

ال⁩ (ol)

  1. that

Postposition edit

ال⁩ (ol)

  1. Denotes "to be" for third person singular when at the end of an object; is.
  2. Denotes third person singular after various tenses.

Khalaj edit

Noun edit

اَل⁩ (əl) (definite accusativeاَلی⁩, pluralاَللَر⁩)

  1. Arabic spelling of əl (hand)

Declension edit

North Levantine Arabic edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Arabicال(al-).

Article edit

الـ (l-)

  1. the
Usage notes edit
  • The article in fact consists solely of the consonant /l/, which is assimilated to the same onsets as in Standard Arabic (see above). Following the usage note there, some speakers extend this process of assimilation to the now-coronal ⁧ج(j /⁠ʒ⁠/).
  • An epenthetic linking vowel is added as phonotactically necessary, be it before the article or after, in order to avoid a three-consonant cluster. Note that its notation with a schwa is not meant to represent IPA [ə], as its actual value varies between /i~e~o/ depending on context:
    النص المكتوب⁩ ― n-naṣṣ əl-maktūbthe written text
    الكتاب المقدس⁩ ― -ktāb -mʾaddasthe Holy Book, i.e. the Bible
  • Assimilation is optionally ignored when the article precedes a consonant cluster where the initial consonant would normally trigger assimilation, as the epenthetic vowel separates them if it appears:
    الولاد الصغار⁩ ― lə-wlād -ṣḡārthe small children

Etymology 2 edit

Reduction of the definite relative pronoun ⁧اللي(lli) or its alternative form ⁧لي(li).

Pronoun edit

ال (l-)

  1. contraction of اللي
    • 1961, Said Akl, Yara[2]:
      يَارَا الجّدَايِلهَا شُقْر
      yāra j-jdāyilha šuʾr
      Yara, whose braids are gold
      (literally, “Yara who her braids are gold”)
Usage notes edit
  • Although this contraction is superficially identical to the definite article, some speakers do not assimilate it to a following coronal, allowing the two to be told apart in this context. Other speakers do, such as Said Akl in the reading linked from the quote above.

Ottoman Turkish edit

Etymology edit

From Proto-Turkic *el, *elig.

Noun edit

ال (el)

  1. hand

Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Turkish: el

Persian edit

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun edit

ال (al)

  1. (Dari) plough; the beam of a plough

Derived terms edit

South Levantine Arabic edit

Etymology edit

From Arabicال(al-).

Pronunciation edit

Article edit

الـ (l-)

  1. the (definite article)

Usage notes edit

  • Phonemically, the article consists solely of the consonant /l/, which is assimilated to the same onsets as in Standard Arabic (see above), with some speakers extending the assimilation to the now-coronal ⁧ج(j /⁠ʒ⁠/). While the epenthetic vowel [ɪ] may be added before or after in order to avoid problematic consonant clusters, different speakers may be more or less tolerant of these clusters; those who tolerate an initial two-consonant cluster may not insert the vowel before /l/, meaning the article may be virtually inaudible in cases that the /l/ is assimilated.
    الميّ الباردة⁩ ― (i)l-mayy (i)l-bārdethe cold water
    (file)
    الشباب الشاطرين⁩ ― (i)š-šabāb (i)š-šāṭrīnthe smart guys
    (file)
    الكتاب الكبير⁩ ― li-ktāb li-kbīrthe big book
    (file)
  • Assimilation is optionally ignored when the article precedes a consonant cluster where the initial consonant would normally trigger assimilation, as the epenthetic vowel separates them if it appears:
    الزلمة الزغير⁩ ― (i)z-zalame li-zḡīrthe small man
    (file)