See also: ہم

Arabic edit

Etymology 1 edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /hum/
  • (file)

Pronoun edit

هُمْ (humm pl (enclitic formـهُمorـهِم⁩)

  1. they (masculine plural subject pronoun)
See also edit
Arabic personal pronouns
Isolated nominative pronouns
singular dual plural
1st person أَنَا(ʔanā) نَحْنُ(naḥnu)
2nd person m أَنْتَ(ʔanta) أَنْتُمَا(ʔantumā) أَنْتُمْ(ʔantum)
f أَنْتِ(ʔanti) أَنْتُنَّ(ʔantunna)
3rd person m هُوَ(huwa) هُمَا(humā) هُمْ(hum), ⁧هُمُ(humu)1
f هِيَ(hiya) هُنَّ(hunna)
Isolated accusative pronouns
singular dual plural
1st person إِيَّايَ(ʔiyyāya) إِيَّانَا(ʔiyyānā)
2nd person m إِيَّاكَ(ʔiyyāka) إِيَّاكُمَا(ʔiyyākumā) إِيَّاكُم(ʔiyyākum)
f إِيَّاكِ(ʔiyyāki) إِيَّاكُنَّ(ʔiyyākunna)
3rd person m إِيَّاهُ(ʔiyyāhu) إِيَّاهُمَا(ʔiyyāhumā) إِيَّاهُمْ(ʔiyyāhum)
f إِيَّاهَا(ʔiyyāhā) إِيَّاهُنَّ(ʔiyyāhunna)
Enclitic accusative and genitive pronouns
singular dual plural
1st person ـنِي(-nī), ⁧ـنِيَ(-niya), ⁧ـي(-y), ⁧ـيَ(-ya)2 ـنَا(-nā)
2nd person m ـكَ(-ka) ـكُمَا(-kumā) ـكُم(-kum)
f ـكِ(-ki) ـكُنَّ(-kunna)
3rd person m ـهُ(-hu), ⁧ـهِ(-hi)3 ـهُمَا(-humā), ⁧ـهِمَا(-himā)3 ـهُم(-hum), ⁧ـهِم(-him)3
f ـهَا(-hā) ـهُنَّ(-hunna), ⁧ـهِنَّ(-hinna)3
1. ⁧هُمْ(hum) becomes ⁧هُمُ(humu) before the definite article ⁧الـ(al--).
2. Specifically, ⁧ـنِي(-nī, me) is attached to verbs, but ⁧ـِي() or ⁧ـيَ(-ya, my) is attached to nouns. In the latter case, ⁧ـيَ(-ya) is attached to nouns whose construct state ends in a long vowel or diphthong (e.g. in the sound masculine plural and the dual), while ⁧ـِي() is attached to nouns whose construct state ends in a short vowel, in which case that vowel is elided (e.g. in the sound feminine plural, as well as the singular and broken plural of most nouns). Furthermore, of the masculine sound plural is assimilated to before ⁧ـيَ(-ya) (presumably, -aw of masculine defective -an plurals is similarly assimilated to -ay). Prepositions use ⁧ـِي() or ⁧ـيَ(-ya), even though in this case it has the meaning of “me” rather than “my”. The sisters of inna can use either form (e.g. ⁧إِنَّنِي(ʔinnanī) or ⁧إِنِّي(ʔinnī)).
3. ⁧ـهِـ(-hi-) occurs after -i, , or -ay, and ⁧ـهُـ(-hu-) elsewhere (after -a, , -u, , -aw).

Etymology 2 edit

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

ـهُمْorـهِمْ (-hum or -himm pl (enclitic form ofهُم(hum))

  1. them, their (masculine plural bound object pronoun)

Etymology 3 edit

From the root ⁧ه م م(h-m-m).

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

هَمَّ (hamma) I, non-pastيَهُمُّ⁩‎ (yahummu)

  1. to disquiet, to make uneasy, to distress
  2. to grieve
  3. to preoccupy, to concern, to affect
  4. to be of interest
  5. to plan, to be about to, to start doing, to become determined [+ بِ(object)]
    هَمُّوا بِٱلْفِرَارِ
    hammū bi-l-firāri
    They started running away.
Conjugation edit

Etymology 4 edit

From the root ⁧ه م م(h-m-m).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

هَمّ (hammm (pluralهُمُوم(humūm))

  1. verbal noun of هَمَّ(hamma) (form I)
  2. anxiety, concern, worry, care
  3. sorrow, grief, affliction, distress
  4. weight, moment, importance
Declension edit

Etymology 5 edit

From the root ⁧ه م م(h-m-m).

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

هِمّ (himm) (feminineهِمَّة(himma), masculine pluralأَهْمَام(ʔahmām), feminine pluralهَمَائِم(hamāʔim) orهِمَّات(himmāt))

  1. decrepit, senile
Declension edit
References edit
  • Wehr, Hans (1979), “هم”, in J. Milton Cowan, editor, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 4th edition, Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services, →ISBN

Noun edit

هِمّ (himmm (pluralأَهْمَام(ʔahmām), feminineهِمَّة(himma))

  1. old man
Declension edit

References edit

  • Freytag, Georg (1837), “هم”, in Lexicon arabico-latinum praesertim ex Djeuharii Firuzabadiique et aliorum Arabum operibus adhibitis Golii quoque et aliorum libris confectum (in Latin), volume 4, Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, page 406
  • Kazimirski, Albin de Biberstein (1860), “هم”, in Dictionnaire arabe-français contenant toutes les racines de la langue arabe, leurs dérivés, tant dans l’idiome vulgaire que dans l’idiome littéral, ainsi que les dialectes d’Alger et de Maroc (in French), volume 2, Paris: Maisonneuve et Cie, page 1442
  • Steingass, Francis Joseph (1884), “هم”, in The Student's Arabic–English Dictionary[1], London: W.H. Allen, page 1181
  • Wehr, Hans (1979), “هم”, in J. Milton Cowan, editor, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 4th edition, Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services, →ISBN
  • Wehr, Hans; Kropfitsch, Lorenz (1985), “هم”, in Arabisches Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart (in German), 5th edition, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, published 2011, →ISBN, page 1355–1356

Egyptian Arabic edit

Pronunciation edit

Pronoun edit

هم (hummapl

  1. they

See also edit

Suffix edit

ـهم (-humpl

  1. them, their

Hijazi Arabic edit

Root
ه م م
1 term

Etymology 1 edit

From Arabicهَمّ(hamm).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

هم (hammm (pluralهموم(humūm) orأهمام(ʾahmām))

  1. worry

Etymology 2 edit

From Arabicهُمْ(hum).

Pronunciation 1 edit

Pronoun edit

هم (hummapl

  1. they

Pronunciation 2 edit

Suffix edit

ـهُم (-humpl

  1. them, their

Iraqi Arabic edit

Etymology edit

From Persianهم(ham).

Adverb edit

هم⁩ (ham)

  1. still, all the same
    مهما نسوي هم مقصرين.
    Mahma nsawwi ham muqaṣṣirīn.
    Whatever we do, we still don't do enough.

Persian edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Middle Persian hm (ham, also, same), from Old Persian 𐏃𐎶 (h-m /⁠ham(a)⁠/, same, together), from Proto-Iranian *hamHáh, from Proto-Indo-Iranian *samHás, from Proto-Indo-European *somHós (same).[1] Compare Sanskrit सम (sama), English same.

Alternative forms edit

  • ـم(-am) (colloquial)

Pronunciation edit

 
 

Readings
Classical reading? ham
Dari reading? ham
Iranian reading? ham
Tajik reading? ham
  • This word never takes stress.

Adverb edit

هم (ham)[2]

  1. also, too; (in negative constructions, chiefly as a post-positive particle) either, neither
    Synonym: (formal)نیز(niz)
    از این کتاب هم خوشم می‌آید.
    az in ketâb ham xošam mi-âyad.
    I like this book, too.
    فارسی هم بلد نیست.
    fârsi ham balad nist.
    He doesn't speak Persian, either.
  2. even; often with ⁧حتی(hatta)
    حتی موش هم خوردند.
    hattâ muš ham xordand.
    Even rats were eaten.
  3. (as ⁧هم(ham)... ⁧هم(ham)) both
    یک سال بعد هم من و هم او ازدواج كرديم.
    yek sâl-e ba'd ham man o ham u ezdevâj kardim.
    A year later, he and I married.
  4. Used in the non-initial clause to suggest a contrast.
    او گپ می‌زد، من هم ساکت بودم.
    u gap mi-zad, man ham sâket budam.
    He talked; as for me, I was silent.
    بد نیست، خیلی هم خوب است.
    bad nist, xeyli ham xub ast.
    It's not bad, rather it's very good.
Usage notes edit
  • هم(ham) directly follows the word or phrase it modifies, except in the coordinate construction ⁧هم(ham)... ⁧هم(ham) in which case it comes before.
از این کتاب هم خوشم می‌آید.
az in ketâb ham xošam mi-âyad.
I like this book, also. (In addition to another book that I like, I like this one.)
من هم از این کتاب خوشم می‌آید.
man ham az in ketâb xošam mi-âyad.
I also like this book. (In addition to someone else who likes this book, I do.)

Pronoun edit

هم (ham)

  1. each other; Short for همدیگر(hamdigar).
Derived terms edit

Prefix edit

هم (ham-)

  1. co-; denotes sharing of a property
    ‎⁧هم(ham) + ‎⁧کلاس(kelâs, class) → ‎⁧همکلاس(hamkelâs, classmate)
    ‎⁧هم(ham) + ‎⁧سایه(sâye, shadow, shade) → ‎⁧همسایه(hamsâye, neighbor)
    ‎⁧هم(ham) + ‎⁧وطن(vatan, fatherland, nation) → ‎⁧هموطن(hamvatan, compatriot)
Derived terms edit

Descendants edit

  • Armenian: համ (ham, and, both)
  • Azerbaijani: həm (and)
  • Bashkir: һәм (həm, and)
  • Tatar: һәм (häm, and)
  • Iraqi Arabic: ⁧هم(still)

Etymology 2 edit

Borrowed from Arabicهَمّ(hamm).

Pronunciation edit

 

Readings
Classical reading? ham(m)
Dari reading? ham(m)
Iranian reading? ham(m)
Tajik reading? ham(m)

Noun edit

هم (ham)

  1. (literary) grief; sorrow
    Synonym:غم(ğam)

References edit

  1. ^ Rastorgujeva, V. S.; Edelʹman, D. I. (2007) Etimologičeskij slovarʹ iranskix jazykov [Etymological Dictionary of Iranian Languages] (in Russian), volume 3, Moscow: Vostochnaya Literatura, page 344
  2. ^ MacKenzie, D. N. (1971), “ham”, in A concise Pahlavi dictionary, London, New York, Toronto: Oxford University Press, page 39

South Levantine Arabic edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Arabicهُمْ(hum).

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /hom.me/, [ˈhʊm.me]
  • (file)

Pronoun edit

هم (hommepl (enclitic formـهم(-hom))

  1. they (third-person plural subject pronoun)
    Synonym: (Galilee)هن(hinne)

See also edit

South Levantine Arabic personal pronouns
Singular Plural
1st person أنا(ʔana) احنا(ʔiḥna)
2nd person m انت(ʔinta) انتو(ʔintu)
f انتي(ʔinti)
3rd person m هو(huwwe) هم(homme)
f هي(hiyye)

Etymology 2 edit

From Arabicـهُمْ(-hum) or ⁧ـهِمْ(-him).

Suffix edit

ـهم (-hompl

  1. Enclitic form of هم(homme)
  2. they, them, their
    Synonym: (Galilee)ـهن(-hen)

See also edit

South Levantine Arabic enclitic pronouns
Singular Plural
after consonant after vowel
1st person after verb ـني(-ni) ـنا(-na)
else ـِي(-i) ـي(-y)
2nd person m ـَك(-ak) ـك(-k) ـكُم(-kom) / ⁧ـكو(-ku)
f ـِك(-ek) ـكي(-ki)
3rd person m ـُه(-o) ـه(-h) ـهُم(-hom)
f ـها(-ha)

Etymology 3 edit

Root
ه م م
3 terms

From Arabicهَمَّ(hamma).

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit

همّ (hamm) I (presentبهمّ(bihimm))

  1. to concern, to preoccupy
Conjugation edit
    Conjugation of ⁧همّ(hamm)
singular plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
past m همّيت⁩ (hammēt) همّيت⁩ (hammēt) همّ⁩ (hamm) همّينا⁩ (hammēna) همّيتو⁩ (hammētu) همّو⁩ (hammu)
f همّيتي⁩ (hammēti) همّت⁩ (hammat)
present m بهمّ⁩ (bahimm) بتهمّ⁩ (bithimm) بهمّ⁩ (bihimm) منهمّ⁩ (minhimm) بتهمّو⁩ (bithimmu) بهمّو⁩ (bihimmu)
f بتهمّي⁩ (bithimmi) بتهمّ⁩ (bithimm)
subjunctive m اهمّ⁩ (ahimm) تهمّ⁩ (thimm) يهمّ⁩ (yhimm) نهمّ⁩ (nhimm) تهمّو⁩ (thimmu) يهمّو⁩ (yhimmu)
f تهمّي⁩ (thimmi) تهمّ⁩ (thimm)
imperative m همّ⁩ (himm) همّو⁩ (himmu)
f همّي⁩ (himmi)

Tunisian Arabic edit

Suffix edit

ـهُمْ⁩ (-humpl

  1. them, their