Egyptian edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Proto-Afroasiatic *ˀanāku. By surface analysis, jn (independent pronoun morpheme) +‎ .k (first person stative ending).

Pronunciation edit


Pronoun edit


 sg 1. stressed (‘independent’) pronoun

  1. I, me (see usage notes)
    • Reign of Amenemhat II or Senusret II, c. 1929–1878 BCE, Stela of Hekaib (Rijksmuseum van Oudheden, AP 78):
      n&D sA1iq
      jnk nḏs jqr
      I was an excellent individual
Usage notes edit

Unlike the suffix pronouns and dependent pronouns, the independent pronouns are not tied to any other element of the sentence. Nevertheless, the meaning of an independent pronoun depends on context:

  • After an infinitive, it is the subject of the verb.
  • Before a noun, its meaning can be ambiguous:
    • In the first and second person, it could be the subject of a noun phrase.
    • Alternatively, in all persons, it can be the predicate of a noun phrase.
    • If the noun is a participle, then in all persons it could be either the subject or the predicate of a noun phrase.
    • If the demonstrative pronoun pw is placed between the pronoun and the noun, the pronoun is definitely the predicate.
  • Before an adjective, in the first person only, it is the subject of an adjectival phrase.

When the independent pronoun is the subject it may, but does not always, indicate an emphasised subject.

Inflection edit
Alternative forms edit

Further, the writing of this pronoun can optionally be varied to indicate the identity of the antecedent — a distinction which would not have been indicated in speech, e.g.:

Descendants edit
  • Demotic: jnk

Etymology 2 edit

Wilson suggests an origin in a later development of jnq (to embrace). Also compare jkn (to seize), which may be a further development of this word.

Pronunciation edit

Verb edit



  1. (transitive) to hold in hand [Greco-Roman Period]
Inflection edit
Alternative forms edit

References edit

  • jnk (lemma ID 27940)”, in Thesaurus Linguae Aegyptiae[1], Corpus issue 17, Web app version 2.01 edition, Tonio Sebastian Richter & Daniel A. Werning by order of the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften and Hans-Werner Fischer-Elfert & Peter Dils by order of the Sächsische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Leipzig, 2004–15 December 2022
  • Erman, Adolf, Grapow, Hermann (1926) Wörterbuch der ägyptischen Sprache[2], volume 1, Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, →ISBN, page 101.13
  • Faulkner, Raymond Oliver (1962) A Concise Dictionary of Middle Egyptian, Oxford: Griffith Institute, →ISBN, page 24
  • Wilson, Penelope (1991) A Lexicographical Study of the Ptolemaic Texts in the Temple of Edfu, Liverpool: University of Liverpool, pages 159–160
  • James P[eter] Allen (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, 2nd edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 51.
  1. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, pages 31, 33, 44, 65

Finnish edit

Pronoun edit


  1. Abbreviation of jonkin.

Usage notes edit

  • This abbreviation is chiefly used in dictionaries.

Anagrams edit