See also: 傾ぐ


Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
Grade: S


Shift from katabuku (see Etymology 2), the medial /-b-/ loses plosive and becomes a nasal /-m-/.


  • Tokyo pitch accent of conjugated forms of "傾く"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Terminal (終止形)
Attributive (連体形)
傾く たむ [kàtámúꜜkù]
Imperative (命令形) 傾け たむ [kàtámúꜜkè]
Key constructions
Passive 傾かれる たむかれ [kàtámúkáréꜜrù]
Causative 傾かせる たむかせ [kàtámúkáséꜜrù]
Potential 傾ける たむけ [kàtámúkéꜜrù]
Volitional 傾こう たむこ [kàtámúkóꜜò]
Negative 傾かない たむかない [kàtámúkáꜜnàì]
Negative perfective 傾かなかった たむかなかった [kàtámúkáꜜnàkàttà]
Formal 傾きます たむきま [kàtámúkímáꜜsù]
Perfective 傾いた たむいた [kàtámúꜜìtà]
Conjunctive 傾いて たむいて [kàtámúꜜìtè]
Hypothetical conditional 傾けば たむけば [kàtámúꜜkèbà]


(かたむ) (katamukuintransitive godan (stem (かたむ) (katamuki), past (かたむ)いた (katamuita))

Japanese verb pair
active (かたむ)ける
mediopassive (かたむ)
  1. to tilt, lean, incline
    Synonyms: 傾ぐ (katagu); 偏る, 片寄る (katayoru)
  2. to favor
  3. to wane
  4. to lose force, power, or momentum (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
  5. to set in the west, said of the sun or moon
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
Grade: S

From Old Japanese.

  This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.
Particularly: “ (kata) + 吹く (fuku)?”



(かたぶ) (katabukuintransitive godan (stem (かたぶ) (katabuki), past (かたぶ)いた (katabuita))

  1. (archaic) to tilt, lean
    ()(みち)や (あふひ)(かたぶ) 五月(さつき)(あめ)
    hi no michi ya, aoi katabuku, satsuki-ame
    The sun's way: hollyhocks turn toward it through all the rain of May.[2]
    Synonym: 傾ぐ (katagu)
  2. (archaic) to think something strange or odd
  3. (archaic) to set in the west, said of the sun or moon
    • c. 759, Man'yōshū (book 17, poem 3955), text here
      奴婆多麻乃(ぬばたまの)欲波布氣奴良之(よはふけぬらし)多末久之氣(たまくしげ)敷多我美夜麻尓(ふたがみやまに)(つき)加多夫伎奴(かたぶきぬ) [Man'yōgana]
      ぬばたま()()けぬらし(たま)(くし)()二上山(ふたがみやま)(つき)かたぶきぬ [Modern spelling]
      nubatama no yo wa fukenurashi tama-kushige futagami-yama ni tsuki katabukinu
      It seems that the night, [dark] as pitch-black jade, has deepened. The moon has declined over [Futagami] mountain.[3]
    • 1086, Goshūi Wakashū (book 12, poem 680; also Hyakunin Isshu, poem 59)
      yasura wa de ne na mashi mono o sayo fukete katabuku made no tsuki o mishi kana
      I should not have waited. It would have been better to have slept and dreamed, than to have watched night pass, and this slow moon sink.[4]
  4. (archaic) to lose force, power, or momentum (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
    • 711712, Kojiki (poem 106)
      意富美夜能(おほみやの)袁登都波多傳(をとつはたで)須美(すみ)加多夫祁理(かたぶけり) [Man'yōgana]
      大宮(おほみや)(をと)(はた)()(すみ)(かたぶ)けり [Modern spelling]
      ōmiya no oto tsu hatade sumi katabukeri
      At the great palace yonder eaveline's comets are slumping to the ground.[5]
  5. to favor
  6. to blame; to criticize (US)/criticise (UK) (Can we verify(+) this sense?)
    Synonym: 非難する (hinan suru)
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
Grade: S

From (kabu, head) + (-ku, verbal suffix).

The kanji is jukujikun (熟字訓), likely from the tilt sense. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)


(かぶ) (kabukuintransitive godan (stem (かぶ) (kabuki), past (かぶ)いた (kabuita))

  1. (archaic) to tilt one's head
  2. (archaic) to dress or act in a strange or eccentric way to attract one's attention
  3. (archaic) to perform kabuki
Derived termsEdit


  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ Harold Gould Henderson (2012) Intro to Haiku: An Anthology of Poems and Poets from Basho to Shiki, Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, →ISBN
  3. ^ Alexander Vovin (2015) Man’yōshū (Book 17): A New English Translation Containing the Original Text, Kana Transliteration, Romanization, Glossing and Commentary, BRILL, →ISBN, page 88
  4. ^ Kenneth Rexroth (1964) One Hundred Poems from the Japanese, illustrated edition, New Directions Publishing, →ISBN, page 9
  5. ^ Edwin A. Cranston (1998) The Gem-Glistening Cup (Volume 1 of A Waka Anthology), illustrated, reprint edition, Stanford University Press, →ISBN, page 64