上二段活用

JapaneseEdit

Kanji in this term
かみ
Grade: 1

Grade: 1
だん
Grade: 6
かつ
Grade: 2
よう
Grade: 2
kun’yomi goon kan’on
 
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EtymologyEdit

Compound of (kami, upper) +‎ 二段活用 (nidan katsuyō, bigrade conjugation).

Literally, 上二段 (kami nidan, upper bigrade) refers to how the inflected endings are located in the gojūon table. (kami, upper) means the vowel (i), which is written above the vowel (e), the other inflection-related vowel. 二段 (nidan, two grades) means two vowels are involved, since each (dan, row) of the table contains one vowel. Thus this can be understood as “two-voweled conjugation in i”.

PronunciationEdit

  • (Tokyo) みにだんかつよー [kàmí nídáń káꜜtsùyòò] (Nakadaka – [6])[1]
  • IPA(key): [ka̠mʲi ɲ̟idã̠ŋ ka̠t͡sɨᵝjo̞ː]

NounEdit

上二段活用(かみにだんかつよう) (kami nidan katsuyō (historical kana かみにだんくわつよう)

  1. (Classical Japanese grammar) a verbal conjugation class which has the following inflections: -i/-i/-u/-uru/-ure/-i[yo]
未然形
Irrealis
連用形
Adverbial
終止形
Conclusive
連体形
Attributive
已然形
Realis
命令形
Imperative
起く (ok-, to rise) 起き (oki2 → oki) 起き (oki2 → oki) 起く (oku) 起くる (okuru) 起くれ (okure) 起き (oki2 → oki)
起きよ (oki2yo2 → okiyo)
落つ (ot-, to fall) 落ち (oti → ochi) 落ち (oti → ochi) 落つ (otu → otsu) 落つる (oturu → otsuru) 落つれ (oture → otsure) 落ち (oti → ochi)
落ちよ (otiyo2 → ochiyo)
老ゆ (oy-, to age) 老い (oi) 老い (oi) 老ゆ (oyu) 老ゆる (oyuru) 老ゆれ (oyure) 老い (oi)
老いよ (oiyo2 → oiyo)

The subscripts in the table above indicate differences in vowel class that were already being lost in Old Japanese. It remains unclear what those different vowel classes may have meant. See the Syllables section in the Wikipedia article on Old Japanese for more details.

Usage notesEdit

Related termsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN