See also: and
U+6D3B, 活
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-6D3B

[U+6D3A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+6D3C]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 85, +6, 9 strokes, cangjie input 水竹十口 (EHJR), four-corner 32164, composition )

Derived characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 622, character 18
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 17423
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1018, character 16
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 3, page 1609, character 2
  • Unihan data for U+6D3B

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
   

Evolved from 𣴠: Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *koːd, *ɡoːd) : semantic (water) + phonetic 𠯑 (OC *ɡroːd).

Etymology 1 edit

Schuessler (2007) proposes possible Austroasiatic etymology; compare Wa-Lawa-Bulang *gɑs "alive (of plants)" & Aslian *gɔs "to live"

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • oa̍h - vernacular (“to live; lively; agile; alive; so; awful”), hoa̍t - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /xuo³⁵/
Harbin /xuo²⁴/
Tianjin /xuo⁴⁵/
Jinan /xuə⁴²/
Qingdao /xuə⁴²/
Zhengzhou /xuo⁴²/
Xi'an /xuo²⁴/
Xining /xu⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /xuə⁵³/ 幹~
/xuə¹³/ 死~
Lanzhou /xuə⁵³/
Ürümqi /xuɤ⁵¹/
Wuhan /xuo²¹³/
Chengdu /xo³¹/
Guiyang /xo²¹/
Kunming /xo³¹/
Nanjing /xoʔ⁵/
Hefei /xuɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /xuaʔ⁵⁴/
Pingyao /xuʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /xuaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /ɦuəʔ¹/
Suzhou /ɦuəʔ³/
Hangzhou /ɦuoʔ²/
Wenzhou /ɦo²¹³/
Hui Shexian /xua²²/
/ua²²/
Tunxi /uːə¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /xo²⁴/
Xiangtan /ho²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /uɵʔ²/
Hakka Meixian /fat̚⁵/
Taoyuan /fɑt̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /wut̚²/
Nanning /wut̚²²/
Hong Kong /wut̚²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /huat̚⁵/
/uaʔ⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /uaʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /xua²⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /uaʔ⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /ua³³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 2/2
Initial () (33)
Final () (64)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter hwat
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ɦuɑt̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ɦʷɑt̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ɣuɑt̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ɦwat̚/
Li
Rong
/ɣuɑt̚/
Wang
Li
/ɣuɑt̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ɣuɑt̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
huó
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
wut6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
huó
Middle
Chinese
‹ hwat ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ɡ]ʷˁat/
English to live

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 2/2
No. 7585
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ɡoːd/

Definitions edit

  1. to live; to exist
  2. life; existence
  3. to make live; to provide food for
  4. having life; live
  5. lively; vivid
  6. flexible; movable; moving; nimble; agile
  7. flexible; adaptable; fluid
  8. job; work
  9. product; produce
  10. simply; exactly
  11. alive; living; in a living state
      ―  huózhuō  ―  to capture alive
      ―  huómái  ―  to bury alive
  12. to save (a person's life)
  13. (informal) sexual intercourse
      ―  qì dà huór hǎo  ―  the "tool" (penis) is big, [his] sex is good
  14. (Mainland China Hokkien, emphasis in exclamations) so; how; what
  15. (Mainland China Hokkien, in rhetorical questions) awful; unable to handle (used after either or 𣍐𫧃 to mean the same thing)
Synonyms edit
  • (having life):
  • (product):

Antonyms edit

  • (antonym(s) of to live): ()

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (かつ) (katsu)

Etymology 2 edit

Pronunciation edit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/2
Initial () (28)
Final () (64)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter kwat
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kuɑt̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʷɑt̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/kuɑt̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kwat̚/
Li
Rong
/kuɑt̚/
Wang
Li
/kuɑt̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kuɑt̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
guo
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gut3
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/2
No. 7568
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
3
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*koːd/

Definitions edit

  1. Only used in 活活 (guōguō).

Compounds edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. alive
  2. lively
  3. (of a machine or device) on; active; in operation

Readings edit

Compounds edit

Etymology edit

Kanji in this term
かつ
Grade: 2
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (hwat, to live).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(かつ) (katsuくわつ (kwatu)?

  1. life

References edit

  1. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN

Korean edit

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC hwat).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅘᅪᇙ〮 (Yale: hhwálq)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Sinjeung Yuhap, 1576 사ᄅᆞᆯ (Yale: salol) (Yale: hwal)

Pronunciation edit

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (sal hwal))

  1. Hanja form? of (activity). [affix]

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: hoạt, oặt, oạc

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.