上一段活用

JapaneseEdit

Kanji in this term
かみ
Grade: 1
いち
Grade: 1
だん
Grade: 6
かつ
Grade: 2
よう
Grade: 2
kun’yomi goon kan’on
 
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EtymologyEdit

Compound of (kami, upper) +‎ 一段活用 (ichidan katsuyō, monograde conjugation).

Literally, 上一段 (kami ichidan, upper monograde) refers to how the inflected endings are located in the gojūon table. (kami, upper) means the vowel i, which is written above the vowel e, the other inflection-related vowel. 一段 (ichidan, one grade) means only one vowel is involved, since each (dan, row) of the table contains one vowel. Thus this can be understood as “one-voweled conjugation in i”.

PronunciationEdit

  • (Tokyo) みいちだんかつよー [kàmí íchídáń káꜜtsùyòò] (Nakadaka – [7])[1]
  • IPA(key): [ka̠mʲi it͡ɕidã̠ŋ ka̠t͡sɨᵝjo̞ː]

NounEdit

(かみ)(いち)(だん)(かつ)(よう) (kami ichidan katsuyō (historical kana かみいちだんくわつよう)

  1. (grammar) a verbal conjugation class in which the verb stem ends in -i and consists of four alternating bases: -i, -iru, -ire, and -iyo/-iro
Modern 未然形
Irrealis
連用形
Adverbial
終止形
Conclusive
連体形
Attributive
仮定形
Conditional
命令形
Imperative
着る (ki-, to wear) (ki) (ki) 着る (kiru) 着る (kiru) 着れ (kire) 着よ (kiyo)
着ろ (kiro)
閉じる (toji-, to close) 閉じ (toji) 閉じ (toji) 閉じる (tojiru) 閉じる (tojiru) 閉じれ (tojire) 閉じよ (tojiyo)
閉じろ (tojiro)
似る (ni-, to resemble) (ni) (ni) 似る (niru) 似る (niru) 似れ (nire) 似よ (niyo)
似ろ (niro)
伸びる (nobi-, to extend) 伸び (nobi) 伸び (nobi) 伸びる (nobiru) 伸びる (nobiru) 伸びれ (nobire) 伸びよ (nobiyo)
伸びろ (nobiro)
見る (mi-, to see) (mi) (mi) 見る (miru) 見る (miru) 見れ (mire) 見よ (miyo)
見ろ (miro)
降りる (ori-, to descend) 降り (ori) 降り (ori) 降りる (oriru) 降りる (oriru) 降りれ (orire) 降りよ (oriyo)
降りろ (oriro)
Archaic 未然形
Irrealis
連用形
Adverbial
終止形
Conclusive
連体形
Attributive
已然形
Realis
命令形
Imperative
着る (ki-, to wear) (ki1 → ki) (ki1 → ki) 着る (ki1ru → kiru) 着る (ki1ru → kiru) 着れ (ki1re → kire) 着よ (ki1yo2 → kiyo)
似る (ni-, to resemble) (ni) (ni) 似る (niru) 似る (niru) 似れ (nire) 似よ (niyo2 → niyo)
見る (mi-, to see) (mi1 → mi) (mi1 → mi) 見る (mi1ru → miru) 見る (mi1ru → miru) 見れ (mi1re → mire) 見よ (mi1yo2 → miyo)

The subscripts in the table above indicate differences in vowel class that were already being lost in Old Japanese. It remains unclear what those different vowel classes may have meant. See the Syllables section in the Wikipedia article on Old Japanese for more details.

Related termsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN