|country; state; nation|
speech; language; dialect
speech; language; dialect; tell to
- national language; language specific to or of official usage in a nation
- (chiefly Taiwan, Philippines Hokkien, colloquial in Hong Kong, dated in Mainland China, obsolete in Malaysia) Mandarin Chinese; standard Chinese
- (usually in contrast with 普通話／普通话 (pǔtōnghuà, “mainland Chinese Mandarin”)) Taiwanese Mandarin; Guoyu
- (Malaysia) Malay, the national language of Malaysia
- (historical) under conquest dynasties founded by non-Han groups, the language of the conquering ethnic group: Khitan under the Liao, Mongol under the Yuan, Manchu under the Qing, etc.
- (Korean Classical Chinese) Korean
- (Vietnamese Classical Chinese) Vietnamese
|Kanji in this term|
- Kyūjitai form of
|Hanja in this term|
|Hán tự in this term|
- chữ Hán form of quốc ngữ (“national language, the modern Vietnamese writing system based on the Roman alphabet”).