See also:

U+570B, 國
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-570B

[U+570A]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+570C]

Translingual edit

Traditional
Simplified
Japanese
Korean
Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 
Stroke order
(Taiwan)
 

Alternative forms edit

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 31, +8, 11 strokes, cangjie input 田戈口一 (WIRM), four-corner 60153, composition )

Derived characters edit

Related characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 219, character 16
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 4798
  • Dae Jaweon: page 447, character 9
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 720, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+570B

Chinese edit

trad.
simp.
alternative forms

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *kʷɯːɡ) : semantic (closure) + phonetic (OC *ɡʷɯːɡ).

Etymology edit

The k-prefix derivation of (OC *ɢʷrɯɡ, “boundary; territory”). Cognate with (OC *qʰʷrɯɡ, “threshold”) and (OC *ɢʷɯs, *ɡʷɯ, “park; garden”).

No obvious outside cognate exists. It may be related to Burmese ကွက် (kwak, to be marked with a square or circular pattern; to be confined to a certain area) (Schuessler, 2007).

Pronunciation edit



  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /kuo³⁵/
Harbin /kuo²¹³/
Tianjin /kuo⁴⁵/
Jinan /kuə⁵⁵/
Qingdao /kuə⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /kuo²⁴/
/kuɛ²⁴/
Xi'an /kuei²¹/
Xining /kuɨ⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /kuə¹³/
Lanzhou /kuə¹³/
Ürümqi /kuɤ²¹³/
Wuhan /kuɤ²¹³/
Chengdu /kue³¹/
Guiyang /kuɛ²¹/
Kunming /ko³¹/
Nanjing /kueʔ⁵/
Hefei /kuɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /kuəʔ²/
Pingyao /kuʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /kuaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /koʔ⁵/
Suzhou /kuəʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /koʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /kai²¹³/
Hui Shexian /kuʔ²¹/
Tunxi /kuə⁵/
Xiang Changsha /kuə²⁴/
Xiangtan /ko²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /kuɛʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /kuet̚¹/
Taoyuan /kuet̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /kwɔk̚³/
Nanning /kɔk̚³³/
Hong Kong /kwɔk̚³/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /kɔk̚³²/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /kuɔʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /ko²⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /kok̚²/
Haikou (Hainanese) /kok̚⁵/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (132)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter kwok
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kwək̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/kʷək̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/kuək̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kwək̚/
Li
Rong
/kuək̚/
Wang
Li
/kuək̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/kwək̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
guo
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gwak1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
guó
Middle
Chinese
‹ kwok ›
Old
Chinese
/*[C.q]ʷˁək/
English state (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 5547
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʷɯːɡ/

Definitions edit

  1. country; nation; nation-state; kingdom (Classifier: )
      ―  jiànguó  ―  to establish a country
      ―  guó lì mín  ―  to benefit the country and the people
      ―  guóyíng  ―  state-operated; state-run
  2. (obsolete) capital
  3. (obsolete) to make a place the capital city; to establish a capital
  4. (obsolete or in compounds) place; region
      ―  shānguó  ―  mountainous country; hilly region
    水鄉澤水乡泽  ―  shuǐxiāngzéguó  ―  region full of rivers, lakes or canals
  5. (in compounds) national; representing a nation
      ―  guó  ―  national flag
      ―  guó  ―  national anthem
      ―  guóhuā  ―  national flower
  6. Short for 國語国语 (guóyǔ, “Mandarin”).
  7. Short for 國民黨国民党 (Guómíndǎng, “Kuomintang”).
    共內戰共内战  ―  Guó Gòng Nèizhàn  ―  the Chinese Civil War
  8. domestic; of our country (in many contexts meaning Chinese)
    日產日产  ―  guóchǎn, rìchǎn  ―  made domestically; made in Japan
      ―  guóhuà  ―  traditional Chinese painting
      ―  guóhuò  ―  domestic goods (China-made goods)
  9. a surname

Compounds edit

Descendants edit

Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: (こく) (koku)
  • Korean: 국(國) (guk)
  • Vietnamese: quốc ()

Others:

References edit

Japanese edit

Shinjitai

Kyūjitai

Kanji edit

(“Jinmeiyō” kanji used for nameskyūjitai kanji, shinjitai form )

  1. country, nation, nation-state

Readings edit

  • On (unclassified): こく (koku)
  • Kun: くに (kuni, )

Noun edit

(くに) (kuni

  1. a land, a country

Korean edit

Alternative forms edit

 
A variant of "國" commonly found in old books of pre-modern Korea.

Etymology edit

From Middle Chinese (MC kwok).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 귁〮 (Yale: kwúyk)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 나라〮 (Yale: nàlá) 국〮 (Yale: kwúk)

Pronunciation edit

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 나라 (nara guk))

  1. Hanja form? of (country; state; nation). [affix]

Compounds edit

References edit

  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Việt readings: quốc[1][2][3]
: Nôm readings: cuốc[1][3][4], quốc[2][5]

  1. chữ Hán form of quốc (nation; state; country).

Compounds edit

References edit