Chinese

See also: chinese

EnglishEdit

 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
Min Nan edition of Wiktionary
 
A CIA map edited to show the areas separately held by the PRC and ROC but still considered one China. Some Chinese claims are omitted.
 
Men in Hanfu (traditional Chinese clothing)

EtymologyEdit

From China +‎ -ese under influence of Portuguese chinês, replacing older Chinish. Doublet of chinois. In its orientalist sense of "generically exotic, backwards, or poorly organized", sometimes a deliberate marketing strategy to increase sales, as with the German Chinese checkers. In its sense related to the orientation of stage lighting's barn doors, a racist reference to a supposed resemblance to East Asian eyes.

PronunciationEdit

  • (UK) IPA(key): /t͡ʃaɪˈniːz/; (sometimes) IPA(key): /ˈt͡ʃaɪniːz/
  • (US) IPA(key): /ˌt͡ʃaɪˈniz/; (sometimes) IPA(key): /ˈt͡ʃaɪˌniz/
  • (file)
  • Rhymes: -iːz

AdjectiveEdit

Chinese (not generally comparable, comparative more Chinese, superlative most Chinese)

  1. Of, from, or related to China, particularly now the People's Republic of China.
    • 1980 November 30, “Communist China's 'Pin Yin' system causes confusion among foreigners”, in Free China Weekly[1], volume XXI, number 47, Taipei, page 1:
      In this instance, when the Chairman of the "Accuracy in Media" spoke out strongly against the Chinese Communist system of "pin yin" spelling, he was not criticizing any bias or unreliability of news presentation but specifically the inconvenience and confusion caused by the "pin yin" spelling of Chinese names.
    China has been led by the Chinese Communist Party since 1949.
  2. Of, from, or related to the people of China, particularly the Han Chinese and their culture whether in China or overseas.
    Important Chinese holidays celebrated around the world include the Chinese New Year ("Spring Festival"), Tomb Sweeping Day, and the Mid-Autumn Festival.
  3. Of, from, or related to a language native to Han Chinese persons, often used generally of Chinese characters or particularly to refer to Standard Mandarin.
    • 1928, Otto Jespersen, An International Language, page 82:
      The construction of a verbal system which is fairly regular and at the same time based on existing languages is a most difficult task, because in no other domain of the grammar do languages retain a greater number of ancient irregularities and differ more fundamentally from one another. Still an attempt will be made here to conciliate the two points of view and to bring about something which resembles the simple Chinese grammar without, however, losing its European character or the power of expressing nuances to which we are accustomed in our own languages.
    There are four Chinese tones... five, if you count the neutral one.
  4. (in phrases, sometimes offensive) As exotic, unusual, backwards, or unorganized as someone or something from China.
  5. (of film and video lighting, offensive, dated) Having barn doors with a horizontal orientation.
    Coordinate term: English

SynonymsEdit

  • (of China, its language or people): Sinic, Sino- (prefix)

Derived termsEdit

TranslationsEdit

Proper nounEdit

Chinese

  1. (uncountable, collective) The citizens of China, particularly Han Chinese citizens of the People's Republic of China.
    • 1900, Jared Sparks, ‎Edward Everett, ‎Henry Cabot Lodge, The North American Review, volume 171, page 390:
      If the Chinese were a people like the Russians, the Germans or the French, we (I address chiefly American and British readers) would observe any marked increase in their industrial activity or in their national aggressiveness with some misgiving, possibly, but []
    • 1934, Chinese Affairs, volume 65, page 23:
      I have given these points to make it clear that the Chinese are a people of strong emotion; and that this emotion is highest and purest when running in the channels of filial piety and loyalty.
    • 2002, Sino-American Relations, volume 28, page 60:
      After Pearl Harbor, American sympathy for the Chinese grew even stronger, for the Chinese were a people who had long been bravely resisting Japanese aggressors.
    • 2019 September 30, Jiang Jiang, “I am proud of my country”, in Times of Malta:
      China is a country with a 5,000 year uninterrupted civilisation, and the Chinese are a people that keep moving forward amid trials and tribulations.
    The Chinese have an incredible history.
  2. (uncountable, collective) The Han Chinese, whether in China or overseas.
    The Chinese are present in all parts of the world.
  3. (uncountable) The Standard Chinese language, written in Chinese characters and spoken and spelled using Standard Mandarin pronunciation.
    你好 is read “Nǐ hǎo” and means “Hello” in Chinese.
  4. (uncountable) The branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family including Mandarin, Cantonese, Shanghainese, Minnan, and other closely related dialects.
    Suzhounese and Hakka are lesser-known varieties of Chinese.
  5. (uncountable) The logographic writing system shared by most Sinitic languages.
    Hong Kong still uses traditional Chinese.

SynonymsEdit

Derived termsEdit

TranslationsEdit

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

NounEdit

Chinese (countable and uncountable, plural Chinese or Chineses)

  1. (countable) A person from China or of Chinese descent.
    • 1999, Lydia Laube, Bound for Vietnam[2], →ISBN, page 24:
      But I had the unmitigated pleasure of watching a family of four Chinese struggle to use knives and forks to [eat] their bacon and eggs.
  2. (uncountable) Chinese cuisine.
    • 1958, A.G. Yates, The Cold Dark Hours, Sydney: Horwitz, published 1963, page 73:
      "Do you like to eat Chinese?
    Please don't eat the Chinese. I'm saving it for later.
  3. (UK, countable, informal) A meal consisting of Chinese cuisine.
    We're going out tonight for a Chinese.

Usage notesEdit

As with other nationalities formed with -ese, the countable singular noun in reference to a person (as in "I am a Chinese", "writing about Chinese cuisine as a Chinese") is uncommon and often taken as incorrect. In its place, the adjective is used, by itself (as in "I am Chinese") or with a word like person, man, or woman ("writing about Chinese cuisine as a Chinese person"). However, it is rather frequent in East Asia as a translation for the demonym of the country written 中國人中国人 (Zhōngguórén) (lit. person from China) in Chinese or 中国人 (chūgokujin) in Japanese. The ethnicity is referred to differently by different people, notably 華人华人 (Huárén) or 漢人汉人 (Hànrén)

SynonymsEdit

Related termsEdit

TranslationsEdit

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

AnagramsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit


DutchEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Chinees +‎ -e.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

Chinese f (plural Chinesen, masculine Chinees)

  1. woman from China

Related termsEdit

AdjectiveEdit

Chinese

  1. Inflected form of Chinees

AnagramsEdit


GermanEdit

EtymologyEdit

China +‎ -ese

PronunciationEdit

  • IPA(key): /çiˈneːzə/, /ʃiˈneːzə/
  • (southern Germany, Austria, Switzerland) IPA(key): /kiˈneːzə/
    • (file)
  • Hyphenation: Chi‧ne‧se

NounEdit

Chinese m (weak, genitive Chinesen, plural Chinesen)

  1. person from China

DeclensionEdit

Derived termsEdit

Further readingEdit

  • Chinese” in Duden online
  • Chinese” in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache