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Wiktionary:About Chinese/Cantonese/Taishanese

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Wiktionary uses the following system to transcribe the Taicheng dialect of Taishanese.

The IPA column and Wiktionary romanization was based on the Taicheng dialect data at Hanyu Gujinyin Ziliaoku.

Other romanizations described here are:

  • The method used by Stephen Li at his Taishanese Language Home;
  • The method used by Gene Chin at his website on Hoisanva;
  • The method used in a publication by the Defense Language Institute;
  • The method used by Deng Jun (邓钧) in the Taishan Fangyan Zidian (台山方音字典, 2016).

InitialsEdit

IPA Transcription Stephen Li Gene Chin DLI Deng Jun Example
/p/ b b b p b
/pʰ/ p p p p’ p
/ᵐb/ m m m m m
/f/ f f f f f
/v/ v v v w v
/t/ d d d t d
/tʰ/ t t t t’ t
/ⁿd/ n n n n n
/l/ l l l l l
/ɬ/ lh ɬ x lh lh
/k/ g g g k g
/kʰ/ k k k k’ k
/ᵑɡ/ ng ŋ ng ng ng
/t͡s/ z dz j ch z
j(i)
/t͡sʰ/ c ts ch ch’ c
q(i)
/ʒ/ y y y y y
/s/ s s s s s
x(i)
/h/ h h h h h

RhymesEdit

IPA Transcription Stephen Li Gene Chin DLI Deng Jun Example
/a/ a a a a a
/ai/ ai ai ai aai ai
/au/ au ɔu ao aau ao
/am/ am am am aam am
/an/ an an an aan an
/aŋ/ ang ang aang ang
/ap̚/ ap ap ap aap ab
/at̚/ at at at aat ad
/ak̚/ ak ak ak aak ag
/i/ i i i i i
/iu/ iu iu iu iu iu
/im/ im im im im im
/in/ in in in in in
/ip̚/ ip ip ip ip ib
/it̚/ it it it it id
/iɛ/ ie ia eh e ie
/iau/ iau iau el iau ieu
/iam/ iam iam em iem iem
/iaŋ/ iang iaŋ eng iang ieng
/iap̚/ iap iap ep iep ieb
/iak̚/ iak iak ek iak ieg
/u/ u u u oo u
/ui/ ui ui ui ooi ui
/un/ un un un oon un
/ut̚/ ut ut ut oot ud
/ei/ ei i i i ei
/eu/ eu ǝu eo aau eu
/em/ em ǝm eim ? em
/en/ en ein ein ien en
/ep̚/ ep ǝp eip ? eb 𢱕
/et̚/ et ɛt eik ? ed
/ɵŋ/ uung ǝŋ ung ung ung
/ɵt̚/ uut ut ut ? ud
/ɵk̚/ uuk ǝk uk uk ug
/ᵘɔ/ invalid IPA characters (ᵘ) o ɔ o o uo
/ᵘɔi/ invalid IPA characters (ᵘ) oi ɔi oi oi oi
/ᵘɔn/ invalid IPA characters (ᵘ) on ɔn on on on
/ɔŋ/ ong ɔŋ ong ong ong
/ᵘɔt̚/ invalid IPA characters (ᵘ) ot ɔt ot ot od
/ɔk̚/ ok ɔk ok ok og
/m̩/ m m m m ng (m)
except m* 唔

TonesEdit

Tone Transcription IPA Gene Chin DLI Deng Jun Example
Mid level 1 33 ä à a'
High level 2 55 ā a a-
Low level 3 22 ã ā a*
Low falling 4 21 â ạ̄ a>
Mid falling 5 32 à â a`

Changed tonesEdit

Tone Transcription IPA Gene Chin DLI Deng Jun Example
Mid level > Mid rising 1* 335 ä/ à* a'-
Low level > Low rising 3* 225 ã/ ā* a*-
Low falling > Low dipping 4* 215 â/ ạ̄* a>-
Mid falling > Mid dipping 5* 325 à/ â* a`- 台山

There are two types of tone changes in Taishanese:

  • The rising tone change () is indicated using an asterisk * after the original tone, e.g. (hong3*, candy).
  • The dipping tone change (to the fourth tone ˨˩) is indicated using -4 after the original tone, e.g. (nguuk5-4, meat)

These two can be combined, e.g. (cat1-4*, a brush).