See also:
U+8A9E, 語
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-8A9E

[U+8A9D]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+8A9F]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 149, +7, 14 strokes, cangjie input 卜口一一口 (YRMMR), four-corner 01661, composition )

Derived characters edit

Related characters edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1163, character 8
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 35533
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1628, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 3974, character 9
  • Unihan data for U+8A9E

Chinese edit

trad.
simp.

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script
         

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ŋaʔ, *ŋas): semantic + phonetic (OC *ŋraː, *ŋaː).

Etymology edit

Compare Tibetan ངག (ngag, speech).

According to Schuessler (2007), (OC *ŋan, “to speak; speech; talk”) is (OC *ŋaʔ) with a nominal n-suffix.

Pronunciation 1 edit


Note:
  • General Taiwanese:
    • gí/gú - vernacular;
    • gú - literary.
  • (Teochew)
  • (Leizhou)
    • Leizhou Pinyin: ngi2
    • Sinological IPA: /ŋi³¹/
  • Wu
  • Xiang

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter ngjoX
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋɨʌX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋiɔX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋiɔX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋɨə̆X/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋiɔX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋĭoX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋi̯woX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jyu5
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngjoX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋ(r)aʔ/
    English speak

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 13159
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋaʔ/

    Definitions edit

    1. to speak; to say
    2. (of an animal) to chirp; to hoot
    3. speech; language
    4. (linguistics) spoken language (contrary to written language )
    5. expression; words
    6. saying; proverb; set phrase
    7. movement or signal which transmits information
    8. chirping; tweet

    Compounds edit

    Pronunciation 2 edit



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (22)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter ngjoH
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋɨʌH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋiɔH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋiɔH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋɨə̆H/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋiɔH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋĭoH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋi̯woH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    jyu6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngjoH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋ(r)aʔ-s/
    English tell

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 13165
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋas/

    Definitions edit

    1. to tell; to inform

    Descendants edit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (go)
    • Korean: 어(語) (eo)
    • Vietnamese: ngữ ()

    References edit

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    goon
     
    Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia ja
     
    English Wikipedia has an article on:
    Wikipedia

    From Middle Chinese (MC ngjoX).

    Pronunciation edit

      This entry needs an audio pronunciation. If you are a native speaker with a microphone, please record this word. The recorded pronunciation will appear here when it's ready.

    Noun edit

    () (go

    1. (linguistics) a word, term
      Synonyms: 言葉 (kotoba), 単語 (tango)
    2. a proverb
      Synonyms: (kotowaza), 成句 (seiku)

    Derived terms edit

    Suffix edit

    () (-go

    1. language of, -ese, -ish
      ()(ほん)()nihongoJapanese
      (えい)()eigoEnglish
      スペイン()supeingoSpanish

    Derived terms edit

    Affix edit

    () (go

    1. talk, speak
    2. word, language, term
    3. Short for 物語 (monogatari): story, tale, narrative

    Derived terms edit

    References edit

    1. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    Korean edit

    Etymology edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ngjoX).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅌᅥᆼ〯 (Yale: ngě)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 말〯ᄉᆞᆷ〮 (Yale: mǎlsóm) 어〯 (Yale: ě)

    Pronunciation edit

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ɘ(ː)]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 말씀 (malsseum eo))

    1. Hanja form? of (language of; -ese; -ish).

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Việt readings: ngữ[1][2][3]
    : Nôm readings: ngỡ[1][2][3][4], ngửa[1][2][3][4], ngữ[1][2][3], ngứa[1][3], ngợ[3][4], gỡ[1]

    1. chữ Hán form of ngữ (language).
    2. Nôm form of ngỡ (to think that).

    Compounds edit

    References edit