U+9675, 陵
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-9675

[U+9674]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+9676]
U+F959, 陵
CJK COMPATIBILITY IDEOGRAPH-F959

[U+F958]
CJK Compatibility Ideographs
[U+F95A]

Translingual

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Han character

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(Kangxi radical 170, +8, 11 strokes, cangjie input 弓中土金水 (NLGCE), four-corner 74247, composition )

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 1354, character 6
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 41704
  • Dae Jaweon: page 1857, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 6, page 4134, character 6
  • Unihan data for U+9675

Chinese

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trad.
simp. #
alternative forms

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Warring States
Bronze inscriptions
 

Ideogrammic compound (會意会意) and phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *rɯŋ) : semantic (mound) + phonetic (OC *rɯŋ, mound; hill). Originally written .

Etymology

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"mound; hill; gravemound of an emperor"
Compare Proto-Sino-Tibetan *m-raŋ (high; long), whence Burmese မြင့် (mrang., high; tall) (STEDT). Also compare (OC *reŋʔ, “mountain ridge”).
"to mount; to transgress; to encroach upon"
The same word as (OC *rɯŋ, “to rise high; to transgress”). May be related to the etymology above (Schuessler, 2007). It is probably cognate with (OC *brɯŋ, “to cross; to mount; to wade”).

Pronunciation

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  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /liŋ³⁵/
Harbin /ləŋ²⁴/
Tianjin /liŋ⁴⁵/
Jinan /liŋ⁴²/
Qingdao /liŋ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /liŋ⁴²/
Xi'an /liŋ²⁴/
Xining /liə̃²⁴/
Yinchuan /liŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou /lĩn⁵³/
Ürümqi /liŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan /nin²¹³/
Chengdu /nin³¹/
Guiyang /nin²¹/
Kunming /lĩ³¹/
Nanjing /lin²⁴/
Hefei /lin⁵⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /liəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /liŋ¹³/
/li¹³/ 地名
Hohhot /lĩŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /liŋ²³/
Suzhou /lin¹³/
Hangzhou /lin²¹³/
Wenzhou /leŋ³¹/
Hui Shexian /liʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi /lin⁴⁴/
Xiang Changsha /lin¹³/
Xiangtan /nin¹²/
Gan Nanchang /lin⁴⁵/
Hakka Meixian /lin¹¹/
Taoyuan /lin¹¹/
Cantonese Guangzhou /leŋ²¹/
Nanning /leŋ²¹/
Hong Kong /liŋ²¹/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /liŋ³⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /liŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /leiŋ²¹/
Shantou (Teochew) /leŋ⁵⁵/
Haikou (Hainanese) /leŋ³¹/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (37)
Final () (133)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter ling
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/lɨŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/lɨŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/lieŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/liŋ/
Li
Rong
/liəŋ/
Wang
Li
/lĭəŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/li̯əŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
líng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ling4
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
líng
Middle
Chinese
‹ ling ›
Old
Chinese
/*[r]əŋ/
English mound, hill

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 8246
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*rɯŋ/

Definitions

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  1. mound; hill
  2. royal or imperial tomb (generally restricted to the tombs of emperors, empresses and empress dowagers, but also used as an honorific for the tomb of Sun Yat-sen, the first president of China)
  3. to go up; to mount; to ascend
    alt. forms: , (líng)
  4. to surpass; to override
    alt. forms: , (líng)
  5. to bully and humiliate; to encroach on; to invade
    alt. forms: , (líng)
  6. to decline; to wane
  7. to sharpen; to temper
  8. a surname

Compounds

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References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(Jōyō kanji)

  1. mausoleum
  2. imperial tomb
  3. hill; height
    Synonyms: ,
  4. to stave off
    Synonym:

Readings

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Compounds

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
みささぎ
Grade: S
kun'yomi
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
みささぎ
[noun] imperial tomb
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
りょう
Grade: S
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC ling).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(りょう) (ryōりよう (ryou)?

  1. imperial tomb
Synonyms
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References

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  1. ^ Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN

Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC ling). Recorded as Middle Korean 르ᇰ (lung) (Yale: lung) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 언덕 (eondeok reung), word-initial (South Korea) 언덕 (eondeok neung))

  1. hanja form? of / (small hill; mound)
  2. hanja form? of / (imperial tomb)

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

Okinawan

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Kanji

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(Jōyō kanji)

Readings

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Compounds

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Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: lăng, lăn

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.