See also: , , and
U+4E18, 丘
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4E18

[U+4E17]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+4E19]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 1, +4, 5 strokes, cangjie input 人一 (OM), four-corner 72101, composition )

  1. Shuowen Jiezi radical №293

Derived characters edit

Further reading edit

Chinese Wikisource has digitized text of the Kangxi Dictionary entry for :
[[wikisource:zh:康熙字典/一部/四畫#丘|一部/四畫]]

Wikisource


  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 77, character 14
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 33
  • Dae Jaweon: page 156, character 2
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 17, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+4E18

Chinese edit

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Spring and Autumn Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Ancient script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
               





References:

Mostly from Richard Sears' Chinese Etymology site (authorisation),
which in turn draws data from various collections of ancient forms of Chinese characters, including:

  • Shuowen Jiezi (small seal),
  • Jinwen Bian (bronze inscriptions),
  • Liushutong (Liushutong characters) and
  • Yinxu Jiaguwen Bian (oracle bone script).

Ideogram (指事) – hill. Earlier form closer to , as in (OC *kʰa, *qʰa). Compare .

Etymology 1 edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms

Wang (1982) relates this word to () "ruin-mound". However, Schuessler (2007) disagrees.

Schuessler considers two homophones , "hill, mound" and "village, district" to be the same word as settlements were often built on elevated grounds (for a parallel see (jīng)) and traces this word's etymology to Proto-Sino-Tibetan *r/g-wa (village); within Sinitic, (OC *kʰʷɯ) is cognate with (OC *rɯʔ) "village" and (OC *kreː, *kreː) "road crossing, street"; outsides Sinitic, cognate with Mizo khua (village), Lai khûa (village, cosmos), and Burmese ရွာ (rwa, village) (STEDT).

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • kŭ - vernacular;
  • kiŭ - literary (incl. surname).
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • khu - vernacular (incl. surname);
    • khiu - literary.
    Note:
    • ku1 - vernacular (incl. surname);
    • kiu1 - literary.
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (29)
    Final () (136)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Baxter khjuw
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /kʰɨu/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /kʰiu/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /kʰiəu/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /kʰuw/
    Li
    Rong
    /kʰiu/
    Wang
    Li
    /kʰĭəu/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /kʰi̯ə̯u/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    qiū
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    hau1
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    qiū
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ khjuw ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[k]ʷʰə/
    English hill, mound

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 10523
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰʷɯ/

    Definitions edit

    1. mound; hill
        ―  shānqiū  ―  hill
        ―  shāqiū  ―  dune
    2. grave
    3. to place a coffin in a temporary shelter pending burial
    4. (dialectal) Classifier for fields: plot
    5. (obsolete) ruins
    6. (obsolete) empty
    7. a surname
      [Cantonese]  ―  jau1 sing4 tung4 [Jyutping]  ―  Shing-Tung Yau (mathematician)

    Usage notes edit

    See (qiū).

    See also edit
    • (hills): (shān)

    Compounds edit

    Pronunciation 2 edit

    Since Song dynasty, this character may be read as (mǒu) to prevent mentioning name of Confucius.


    Etymology 2 edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“weapon; army; troops; etc.”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of ).

    Etymology 3 edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“earthworm”).
    (This character, , is the second-round simplified form of ).
    Notes:

    Japanese edit

    Kanji edit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Compounds edit

    Etymology edit

    Kanji in this term
    おか
    Grade: S
    kun’yomi
    For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
    おか
    [noun] hill
    [proper noun] a surname
    Alternative spelling
    (This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

    Korean edit

    Alternative forms edit

    Etymology edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC khjuw). Recorded as Middle Korean (kwu) (Yale: kwu) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Hanja edit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 언덕 (eondeok gu))

    1. Hanja form? of (small hill).

    Compounds edit

    References edit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    Kunigami edit

    Kanji edit

    (common “Jōyō” kanji)

    Readings edit

    Etymology edit

    Cognate with Japanese (おか) (oka).

    Pronunciation edit

    Noun edit

    (ふぁーい) (fāi

    1. hill

    Vietnamese edit

    Han character edit

    : Hán Việt readings: khiêu, khâu, khưu
    : Nôm readings: khâu, kheo, khưu

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    References edit