See also: Civil

English

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Etymology

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From Middle English cyvyl, civil, borrowed from Old French civil, from Latin cīvīlis (relating to a citizen), from cīvis (citizen). Cognate with Old English hīwen (household), hīrǣden (family). More at hind; hird.

Pronunciation

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  • enPR: ʹsĭv-əl IPA(key): /ˈsɪv.əl/
  • Audio (US):(file)
  • Rhymes: -ɪvəl

Adjective

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civil (comparative more civil or civiler, superlative most civil or civilest)

  1. (not comparable) Having to do with people and government office as opposed to the military or religion.
    She went into civil service because she wanted to help the people.
  2. (comparable) Behaving in a reasonable or polite manner; avoiding displays of hostility.
    Antonyms: anti-civil, impolite, inconsiderate, noncivil, rude
    It was very civil of him to stop the argument.
    They despise each other, but they are always civil in public.
  3. (archaic) In a peaceful and well-ordered state.
    • 1593, anonymous author, The Life and Death of Iacke Straw [], Act I:
      Herein thou haſt done good ſeruice to thy country:
      VVere all inhumaine ſlaues ſo ſerued as he,
      England would be ciuill, and from all ſuch dealings free.
  4. (law) Relating to private relations among citizens, as opposed to criminal matters.
    a civil case
  5. Secular.
    • 1680, A Practical Discourse of Regeneration:
      As if our Saviour had said, No man can enter into heaven except he be born again; so as he speaketh not only of notorious Sinners, as Adulterers, Drunkards, Swearers, & c. but of all who are in their natural condition, tho' they live never so unblameably, free from scandalous sins, if they be not born again, their civil Righteousness will do them little good, for they shall never see the Kingdom of God.
    • 2008, Jerald Finney, God Betrayed, →ISBN, page 174:
      The word from which "evil" in Romans 13.4 is translated means "generally opposed to civil goodness or virtue, in a commonwealth, and not to spiritual good, or religion, in the church.
    • 2013, John Calvin, Calvin's Complete Commentary, Volume 7: Acts to Ephesians:
      Some grammarians explain this passage as referring to a civil sanctity, in respect of the children being reckoned legitimate, but in this respect the condition of unbelievers is in no degree worse.

Derived terms

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Descendants

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  • Japanese: シビル (shibiru)

Translations

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The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

References

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Anagrams

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Asturian

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Latin cīvīlis.

Adjective

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civil (epicene, plural civiles)

  1. civil, civilian

Derived terms

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References

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  • "civil" in Diccionariu de la Llingua Asturiana

Catalan

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Latin cīvīlis.

Pronunciation

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Adjective

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civil m or f (masculine and feminine plural civils)

  1. civil
    Antonym: incivil
  2. civilian
    Antonym: militar

Derived terms

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Noun

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civil m or f by sense (plural civils)

  1. a member of the guàrdia civil

Noun

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civil m (plural civils)

  1. (colloquial) a preserved sardine
    Synonym: arengada

Further reading

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Chinese

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Etymology

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From clipping of English civil engineering.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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civil

  1. (Hong Kong Cantonese) civil engineering; civil engineer

References

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Czech

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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civil m anim

  1. (informal) civilian (non-military person)
    Synonym: civilista

Declension

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Further reading

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  • civil in Příruční slovník jazyka českého, 1935–1957
  • civil in Slovník spisovného jazyka českého, 1960–1971, 1989

Danish

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Danish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia da

Etymology

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Borrowed from Latin cīvīlis.

Pronunciation

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Adjective

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civil

  1. civil (all senses), civilian

Inflection

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Inflection of civil
Positive Comparative Superlative
Indefinte common singular civil 2
Indefinite neuter singular civilt 2
Plural civile 2
Definite attributive1 civile
1) When an adjective is applied predicatively to something definite, the corresponding "indefinite" form is used.
2) The "indefinite" superlatives may not be used attributively.

Derived terms

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French

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French Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia fr

Etymology

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Borrowed from Latin cīvīlis.

Pronunciation

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Adjective

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civil (feminine civile, masculine plural civils, feminine plural civiles)

  1. civil (war, marriage etc.)
  2. (politics) lay
  3. civilian
  4. (literary) civil, courteous, polite

Derived terms

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Descendants

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Noun

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civil m (plural civils, feminine civile)

  1. civilian

Further reading

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Galician

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Etymology

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Learned borrowing from Latin cīvīlis.

Adjective

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civil m or f (plural civís)

  1. civil, civilian

Derived terms

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Further reading

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Hungarian

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Etymology

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Borrowed from German Zivil, from Latin cīvīlis (relating to a citizen), from cīvis (citizen).[1]

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): [ˈt͡sivil]
  • Hyphenation: ci‧vil
  • Rhymes: -il

Adjective

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civil (not comparable)

  1. civilian (not related to the military, police or other governmental professions)
    Synonym: polgári
    civil szervezetnon-governmental organization
    polgárháborúcivil war

Declension

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Inflection (stem in -e-, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative civil civilek
accusative civilt civileket
dative civilnek civileknek
instrumental civillel civilekkel
causal-final civilért civilekért
translative civillé civilekké
terminative civilig civilekig
essive-formal civilként civilekként
essive-modal
inessive civilben civilekben
superessive civilen civileken
adessive civilnél civileknél
illative civilbe civilekbe
sublative civilre civilekre
allative civilhez civilekhez
elative civilből civilekből
delative civilről civilekről
ablative civiltől civilektől
non-attributive
possessive - singular
civilé civileké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
civiléi civilekéi

Noun

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civil (plural civilek)

  1. civilian (a person following the pursuits of civil life, especially one who is not an active member of the armed forces)

Declension

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Inflection (stem in -e-, front unrounded harmony)
singular plural
nominative civil civilek
accusative civilt civileket
dative civilnek civileknek
instrumental civillel civilekkel
causal-final civilért civilekért
translative civillé civilekké
terminative civilig civilekig
essive-formal civilként civilekként
essive-modal
inessive civilben civilekben
superessive civilen civileken
adessive civilnél civileknél
illative civilbe civilekbe
sublative civilre civilekre
allative civilhez civilekhez
elative civilből civilekből
delative civilről civilekről
ablative civiltől civilektől
non-attributive
possessive - singular
civilé civileké
non-attributive
possessive - plural
civiléi civilekéi
Possessive forms of civil
possessor single possession multiple possessions
1st person sing. civilem civileim, civiljeim
2nd person sing. civiled civileid, civiljeid
3rd person sing. civile, civilje civilei, civiljei
1st person plural civilünk civileink, civiljeink
2nd person plural civiletek civileitek, civiljeitek
3rd person plural civilük, civiljük civileik, civiljeik

References

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  1. ^ Tótfalusi, István. Idegenszó-tár: Idegen szavak értelmező és etimológiai szótára (’A Storehouse of Foreign Words: an explanatory and etymological dictionary of foreign words’). Budapest: Tinta Könyvkiadó, 2005. →ISBN

Further reading

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  • civil in Bárczi, Géza and László Országh. A magyar nyelv értelmező szótára (‘The Explanatory Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’, abbr.: ÉrtSz.). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 1959–1962. Fifth ed., 1992: →ISBN
  • civil in Ittzés, Nóra (ed.). A magyar nyelv nagyszótára (‘A Comprehensive Dictionary of the Hungarian Language’). Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó, 2006–2031 (work in progress; published A–ez as of 2024)

Interlingua

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Adjective

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civil (not comparable)

  1. civil, civilian (not associated with the armed forces)

Norman

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Latin cīvīlis, from cīvis (citizen), from Proto-Indo-European *ḱey- (to lie down, settle; home, family; love; beloved).

Adjective

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civil m

  1. (Jersey) polite
  2. (Jersey) civil

Derived terms

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Occitan

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Latin cīvīlis.

Pronunciation

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Adjective

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civil m (feminine singular civila, masculine plural civils, feminine plural civilas)

  1. civil

Derived terms

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Portuguese

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Latin cīvīlis (civil), from cīvis (citizen). Doublet of cível.

Pronunciation

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  • Rhymes: (Portugal) -il, (Brazil) -iw
  • Hyphenation: ci‧vil

Adjective

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civil m or f (plural civis)

  1. civil; civilian (not relating to the military or clergy)
    Se não quiser levar um tiro, use roupas civis.If you don’t want to be shot, use civilian clothing.
  2. civic (relating to citizens)
    Synonym: cívico
    Antonym: militar
    Deves cumprir tua obrigação civil.You must perform your civic duty.
  3. (law) relating to civil law
    Synonym: cível
    Antonym: criminal
    Estudo direito civil.I study civil law.
  4. occurring between the inhabitants of the same country
    Guerra civil.Civil war.
  5. civil (behaving in a reasonable or polite manner)
    Synonyms: civilizado, cortês, educado, polido
    Antonyms: deseducado, grosseiro, deselegante, feio
    Seja mais civil e pare de criticar as pessoas.Be more civil and stop criticising people.

Derived terms

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Noun

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civil m or f by sense (plural civis)

  1. civilian, non-combatant (person who is not a member of the military, police or belligerent group)

Derived terms

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Further reading

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Romanian

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Alternative forms

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  • țivilarchaic and popular

Etymology

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Borrowed from French civil, Latin cīvīlis.

Adjective

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civil m or n (feminine singular civilă, masculine plural civili, feminine and neuter plural civile)

  1. civil

Declension

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Noun

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civil m (plural civili)

  1. civilian

Declension

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Serbo-Croatian

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Etymology

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Borrowed from German Zivil, from French civil, from Latin cīvīlis (civic, civil), from cīvis (citizen).

Noun

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cìvīl m (Cyrillic spelling цѝвӣл)

  1. civilian (not related to the military armed forces)

Declension

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Spanish

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Latin cīvīlis (civil, civic), from cīvis (citizen).

Pronunciation

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Adjective

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civil m or f (masculine and feminine plural civiles, superlative civilísimo)

  1. civil (all senses)

Derived terms

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Further reading

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Swedish

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Latin cīvīlis.

Adjective

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civil

  1. civil, civilian; having to do with people and organizations outside military or police, sometimes also outside religion or team-based activities, such as a professional sports team
  2. (nominalized, chiefly in the plural) a civilian
    två civila
    two civilians

Declension

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Inflection of civil
Indefinite Positive Comparative Superlative2
Common singular civil
Neuter singular civilt
Plural civila
Masculine plural3 civile
Definite Positive Comparative Superlative
Masculine singular1 civile
All civila
1) Only used, optionally, to refer to things whose natural gender is masculine.
2) The indefinite superlative forms are only used in the predicative.
3) Dated or archaic

Derived terms

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References

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