Open main menu


Etymology 1Edit





 sg 1. suffix pronoun

  1. I, me, my (see usage notes)
Usage notesEdit

This form of pronoun attaches directly to the preceding word, and means different things depending on what it is attached to.

  • When attached to a noun, it indicates the possessor of the noun.
  • When attached to a verb of the suffix conjugation, it indicates the subject of the verb.
  • When attached to an infinitive verb (especially of an intransitive verb) whose subject is not otherwise expressed, it indicates the subject of the verb.
  • When attached to a transitive infinitive verb whose subject is otherwise expressed or omitted, it indicates the object of the verb.
  • In the third person, when attached to a prospective participle, it indicates gender and number agreement.
  • When attached to a particle like jw or a parenthetic like ḫr, it indicates the subject of the clause.
  • When attached to a preposition, it indicates the object of the preposition.
  • When it follows a relative adjective such as ntj or ntt, it indicates the subject of the relative clause (except in the first person singular and third person common).
Alternative formsEdit

The first person singular suffix pronoun is often not written; particularly, it is regularly omitted in Old Egyptian. When it is written, it has a number of variants:

Further, it can, optionally, be varied to indicate the identity of the antecedent — a distinction which would not have been indicated in speech, e.g.:

In Late Egyptian, the presence of this pronoun results in the retention of final -t when the word it is attached to ends in this consonant; this is sometimes expressed by leaving the pronoun unwritten but adding
to indicate the retained -t.

Etymology 2Edit




 m sg 3. stative ending

  1. (Old Egyptian, attached to a stative verb form) he, him
Alternative formsEdit


  • James P[eter] Allen (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, 2nd edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN.
  • Edel, Elmar (1955-1964) Altägyptische Grammatik, Rome: Pontificium Institutum Biblicum
  • Junge, Friedrich (2005) Late Egyptian Grammar: An Introduction, second English edition, Oxford: Griffith Institute, page 52
  • Hoch, James (1997) Middle Egyptian Grammar, Mississauga: Benben Publications, →ISBN, page 32–33
  1. ^ Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 56, 63