From Proto-Egyptian *-kʲi, from Proto-Afroasiatic *-ki (second-person possessive suffix).[1] Compare Iraqw -ki.





 f sg 2. suffix pronoun

  1. you, your (see usage notes)

Usage notes


This form of pronoun attaches directly to the preceding word, and means different things depending on what it is attached to.

  • When attached to a noun, it indicates the possessor of the noun.
  • When attached to a verb of the suffix conjugation, it indicates the subject of the verb.
  • When attached to an infinitive verb (especially of an intransitive verb) whose subject is not otherwise expressed, it indicates the subject of the verb.
  • When attached to a transitive infinitive verb whose subject is otherwise expressed or omitted, it indicates the object of the verb.
  • In the third person, when attached to a prospective participle, it indicates gender and number agreement.
  • When attached to a particle like jw or a parenthetic like ḫr, it indicates the subject of the clause.
  • When attached to a preposition, it indicates the object of the preposition.
  • When it follows a relative adjective such as ntj or ntt, it indicates the subject of the relative clause (except in the first person singular and third person common).



Alternative forms


The following variant hieroglyphic writing becomes increasingly common from the Middle Kingdom onwards, as a result of sound change in the spoken language:

In Late Egyptian the following writings are also attested, as the glottal stop that the consonant had become merged with the pronunciation of .j in many phonetic environments:


  • James P[eter] Allen (2010) Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs, 2nd edition, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, page 50.
  • Junge, Friedrich (2005) Late Egyptian Grammar: An Introduction, second English edition, Oxford: Griffith Institute, page 52
  1. 1.0 1.1 Loprieno, Antonio (1995) Ancient Egyptian: A Linguistic Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, →ISBN, pages 31, 64