See also: LIBRE and libré

English

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Etymology

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Sense 1 (“especially of the will: free, independent”) is borrowed from French libre (at liberty, free; clear, free, vacant; free, without obligation), from Latin līber (free, unrestricted),[1] ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₁lewdʰ- (people).

Senses 2 (“(software) with very few limitations on distribution or improvement”) and 3 ("not enslaved") are either borrowed from the French word or the Spanish libre (free: not enslaved or imprisoned; without obligation; unconstrained by distrust or timidity; not containing, without), from the same Latin etymon as above.

Pronunciation

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Adjective

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libre (not comparable)

  1. (obsolete, rare) Especially of the will: free, independent, unconstrained.
    • 1599, Alexander Hume, “Of Gods Benefites Bestowed vpon Man”, in Hymnes, or Sacred Songs, [], Edinburgh: Printed by Robert Walde-graue, [], →OCLC; republished as John Gardiner Kinnear, editor, Hymns and Sacred Songs, [] (Bannatyne Club Publications; 41), Edinburgh: Printed by Ballantyne and Co. [for the Bannatyne Club], 1832, →OCLC, page 10:
      He [God] Adame lent a libre will to follow what he liſt, / And with his holy ſpirit, and grace his choſen dois aſſiſt: [...]
  2. (software) With very few limitations on distribution or the right to access the source code to create improved versions, but not necessarily free of charge. [from late 20th c.]
    • 1999 February, Alessandro Rubini, “Software Libre and Commercial Viability”, in Marjorie Richardson, editor, Linux Journal: The Monthly Magazine of the Linux Community, number 58, Seattle, Wash.: Specialized System Consultants, →ISSN, →OCLC, page 48, column 1:
      One more point leads toward Free Software in education: when students get jobs, they prefer to use tools they learned at school in order to minimize extra learning efforts. This fact should lead colleges to teach only those tools not owned by anyone—those that are libre.
    • 2005, Philippe Aigrain, “Libre Software Policies at the European Level”, in Joseph Feller, Brian Fitzgerald, Scott A. Hissam, Karim R. Lakhani, editors, Perspectives on Free and Open Source Software, Cambridge, Mass., London: MIT Press, →ISBN, pages 454–455:
      The great potential of libre software for development and social inclusion has long been emphasized. The cost aspect of it, though it might act as a driver, is only one limited aspect of the benefits of libre software in developing countries, deprived regions, or urban areas. The empowerment of persons and groups to not only use technology, but understand it, at the level and rhythm that fits them, with the resulting ability to become active contributors and to innovate are the essence of libre software.
    • 2012, Alma Swan, “Section 3. The Importance of Open Access.”, in Policy Guidelines for the Development and Promotion of Open Access (Open Guidelines Series), Paris: United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, →ISBN, section 3.2 (Levels of Open Access), page 25, column 2:
      The formal definition of Open Access, however, does require re-use rights to enable the article to be re-used in various ways (text-mined, translated into other languages, used in part in other products, etc.), [...]. This is what is known as ‘libre’ Open Access. ‘Libre’ Open Access does not yet constitute the bulk of Open Access literature. In institutional repositories the majority of articles are of the ‘gratis’ type, though a small proportion carry an appropriate (usually Creative Commons) licence and are ‘libre’.
    • 2014, Joshua M. Pearce, “Introduction to Open-source Hardware for Science”, in Open-source Lab: How to Build Your Own Hardware and Reduce Research Costs, Waltham, Mass., Kidlington, Oxfordshire: Elsevier, →ISBN, section 1.2 (What is Open Source?), pages 1–2:
      Free and open-source software (F/OSS, FOSS) or free/libre/open-source software (FLOSS) is a software that is both a free software and an open source. FOSS is a computer software that is available in source code (open source) form and that can be used, studied, copied, modified, and redistributed without restriction, or with restrictions that only ensure that further recipients have the same rights under which it was obtained (free or libre). Free software, software libre, or libre software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction or with restrictions that only ensure that further recipients have the same rights under which it was obtained and that manufacturers of consumer products incorporating free software provide that software as source code.
  3. (historical) Not enslaved (of a black person in a French- or Spanish-colonized area, especially New Orleans).

Usage notes

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Sense 2 (“(software) with very few limitations on distribution or improvement”) is chiefly used to distinguish such software (also called free software) from freeware, which is distributed free of charge or gratis (the two are not mutually exclusive).

Derived terms

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Translations

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Noun

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libre (plural libres)

  1. (historical) A free (not enslaved) black person in a French- or Spanish-colonized area, especially New Orleans.

Coordinate terms

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See also

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References

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  1. ^ † libre, adj.”, in OED Online  , Oxford, Oxfordshire: Oxford University Press, 1902.

Further reading

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Anagrams

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Bikol Central

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Spanish libre.

Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈlibɾe/, [ˈl̪ib.ɾe]
  • Hyphenation: lib‧re

Adjective

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líbre (Basahan spelling ᜎᜒᜊ᜔ᜍᜒ)

  1. gratis; free of charge; for free
  2. free; unconstrained
    Synonym: talingkas

Adverb

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líbre (Basahan spelling ᜎᜒᜊ᜔ᜍᜒ)

  1. gratis; free of charge; for free

Derived terms

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Cebuano

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Spanish libre.

Pronunciation

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  • Hyphenation: lib‧re
  • IPA(key): /ˈlibɾe/, [ˈl̪ib.ɾ̪e]

Adjective

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líbre (Badlit spelling ᜎᜒᜊ᜔ᜇᜒ)

  1. without charge; free, gratis
  2. not married; single
  3. at liberty
  4. without burden

Verb

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líbre (Badlit spelling ᜎᜒᜊ᜔ᜇᜒ)

  1. to treat, to provide someone with (food, drink, or entertainment) at one's own expense
  2. to pay for another person's purchase

French

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Etymology

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Inherited from Middle French libre, from Old French libre, semi-learned form of livre (ca. 1200), from Latin līber (free), from Old Latin loeber, from Proto-Italic *louðeros, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁lewdʰ-er-os, from *h₁lewdʰ- (people).

Pronunciation

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Adjective

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libre (plural libres)

  1. free, at liberty
    Un homme librea free man
  2. clear, free, vacant
    la voie est librethe way is clear
  3. free, without obligation
    temps librefree time
  4. (sports) freestyle

Derived terms

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Descendants

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  • Alemannic German: liiber
  • English: libre
  • Romanian: liber

Further reading

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Anagrams

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Galician

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Alternative forms

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Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈlibɾe/ [ˈli.β̞ɾɪ]
  • Rhymes: -ibɾe
  • Hyphenation: li‧bre

Etymology 1

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From Old Galician-Portuguese libre, livre (13th century, Cantigas de Santa Maria), from Latin līber.

Adjective

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libre m or f (plural libres)

  1. free, not captive, unbound
  2. void; exempt
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References

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  • Ernesto González Seoane, María Álvarez de la Granja, Ana Isabel Boullón Agrelo (20062022) “livre”, in Dicionario de Dicionarios do galego medieval (in Galician), Santiago de Compostela: ILG
  • Xavier Varela Barreiro, Xavier Gómez Guinovart (20062018) “liure”, in Corpus Xelmírez - Corpus lingüístico da Galicia medieval (in Galician), Santiago de Compostela: ILG
  • libre” in Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, SLI - ILGA 2006–2013.
  • libre” in Tesouro informatizado da lingua galega. Santiago: ILG.
  • libre” in Álvarez, Rosario (coord.): Tesouro do léxico patrimonial galego e portugués, Santiago de Compostela: Instituto da Lingua Galega.

Etymology 2

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Verb

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libre

  1. inflection of librar:
    1. first/third-person singular present subjunctive
    2. third-person singular imperative

Hiligaynon

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Spanish libre.

Pronunciation

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  • Hyphenation: lib‧re
  • IPA(key): /ˈlibɾɛ/

Adjective

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libre

  1. free; without charge; gratis

Italian

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Pronunciation

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  • IPA(key): /ˈli.bre/
  • Rhymes: -ibre
  • Hyphenation: lì‧bre

Noun

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libre f

  1. plural of libra

Anagrams

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Middle French

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Etymology 1

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From Old French libre, from Latin līber.

Adjective

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libre m or f (plural libres)

  1. free; at liberty
Descendants
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Etymology 2

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From Latin lībra.

Noun

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libre f (plural libres)

  1. scales

References

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  • libre on Dictionnaire du Moyen Français (1330–1500) (in French)

Norman

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Etymology

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From Old French, borrowed from Latin līber (free).

Adjective

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libre m or f

  1. (Jersey) free

Occitan

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Etymology

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From Old Occitan libre, borrowed from Latin librum.

Pronunciation

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Noun

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libre m (plural libres)

  1. book

Old French

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Etymology

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Semi-learned borrowing from Latin līber.

Adjective

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libre m (oblique and nominative feminine singular libre)

  1. free; at liberty

Descendants

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References

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  • Godefroy, Frédéric, Dictionnaire de l’ancienne langue française et de tous ses dialectes du IXe au XVe siècle (1881) (libre)

Old Occitan

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Latin liber. Gallo-Romance cognate with Old French livre.

Noun

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libre m (oblique plural libres, nominative singular libres, nominative plural libre)

  1. book

Descendants

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Spanish

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Pronunciation

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Etymology 1

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Probably borrowed from Latin līber, from Old Latin loeber, from Proto-Italic *louðeros, from Proto-Indo-European *h₁lewdʰ-er-os, from *h₁lewdʰ- (people).

Adjective

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libre m or f (masculine and feminine plural libres)

  1. free (not imprisoned or enslaved)
  2. free (unconstrained by timidity or distrust)
  3. free (without obligations)
  4. (grammar) free (that can be unattached to another morpheme)
  5. free (without; not containing)
    Synonym: sin
Derived terms
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Descendants
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Etymology 2

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See the etymology of the corresponding lemma form.

Verb

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libre

  1. inflection of librar:
    1. first/third-person singular present subjunctive
    2. third-person singular imperative

Further reading

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Tagalog

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Etymology

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Borrowed from Spanish libre. Displaced older gratis, also borrowed from Spanish.

Pronunciation

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Adjective

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libre or libré (Baybayin spelling ᜎᜒᜊ᜔ᜇᜒ)

  1. free; free of charge; gratis
    Synonyms: walang-bayad, gratis, bigay, (slang) sabes
  2. free of responsibility
    Synonyms: walang-sagutin, malaya, di-mananagot
  3. safe
    Synonym: ligtas
  4. vacant; not working
  5. (basketball) open

Derived terms

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See also

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Noun

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libre or libré (Baybayin spelling ᜎᜒᜊ᜔ᜇᜒ)

  1. (colloquial) treat (to a meal, etc.)

Further reading

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  • libre”, in Pambansang Diksiyonaryo | Diksiyonaryo.ph, Manila, 2018