Last modified on 17 December 2014, at 03:21

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
凹-bw.png
Japanese stroke order
凹-jbw.png

Han characterEdit

(radical 17 +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 尸尸山 (SSU), four-corner 77770)

  1. concave, hollow, depressed
  2. a pass, valley

AntonymsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 135, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1810
  • Dae Jaweon: page 301, character 6
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 308, character 3
  • Unihan data for U+51F9

ChineseEdit

simpl. and trad.

PronunciationEdit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (凹), Pronunciation 1/1

Initial: 影 (34)
Final: 洽
Division: II

Openness: Open
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Fanqie: 烏洽切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ʔɣɛp̚/ /ʔăp̚/ /ʔɐp̚/ /ʔɯæp̚/ /ʔəɨp̚/ /ɐp̚/ /ʔɐp̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
36 3 /*qriːw/
37 3 𨂁 /*qriːb/

AdjectiveEdit

  1. (Advanced Mandarin) concave; hollow

JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(common “Jōyō” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Sinitic. Date of borrowing unknown. Compare modern Mandarin (āo, wā).

PronunciationEdit

AffixEdit

(hiragana おう, romaji ō, historical hiragana あふ)

  1. concave
Usage notesEdit

The character with the reading ō is only used in compounds, and never in isolation.

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Unknown. Sound similarities might suggest a connection to words related to darkness or deep interior, such as (kumo, cloud), 蜘蛛 (kumo, spider), (kuma, a recess, a deep interior corner), (kuro, black), (kura, darkness); more at . Alternately, these broad similarities might be pure coincidence.

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana くぼ, romaji kubo)

  1. an area with sides higher than the center: an indentation, a depression, a dip, a divot, a hole
  2. (slang) female genitalia, the vagina
Derived termsEdit
SynonymsEdit

Etymology 3Edit

Noun stem of verb 凹む (kubomu, to become hollow, to become sunken, to become indented), itself a compound of (kubo, an indentation, a dip) +‎ (mu, to become like something, auxiliary verb attaching to nouns or adjective stems, cognate with びる biru).[2]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana くぼみ, romaji kubomi)

  1. a pit, a hollow, a cavity, a depression, a dent
Derived termsEdit
Usage notesEdit

The 凹み or 窪み spelling with the okurigana is more common when used as a standalone term. The spelling without the okurigana is more common in compounds.

Etymology 4Edit

Compound of (naka, inside, inner) +‎ (kubo, pit, indentation).[2][3][4]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana なかくぼ, romaji nakakubo)

  1. a sunken center
  2. a place or object with a sunken center
Usage notesEdit

The 中窪 spelling is more common.

SynonymsEdit

Etymology 5Edit

Noun stem of verb 凹む (hekomu, to become hollow, to become sunken, to become indented), itself an abbreviated compound of 減り (heri, noun stem of verb 減る heru, “to reduce, to decrease, to diminish”) +‎ 込む (komu, to go inwardly).[2]

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana へこみ, romaji hekomi)

  1. a pit, a hollow, a cavity, a depression, a dent
  2. a mistake, and error
  3. a moment of weakness or confusion, being at a loss
Usage notesEdit

The 凹み spelling is more common.

SynonymsEdit

Etymology 6Edit

Uncertain. Possibly onomatopoeic from the sound of a wheel bouncing in a rut or pothole, or from the sound of something hollow when tapped. Compare adverb ぼこぼこ (bokoboko, full of holes; hollowly).

Alternately, may be compound of (bo, empty?, uncertain; possibly related to verb 掘る horu, “to dig, to dig out”) +‎ (ko, place, suffixing element seen in other words such as そこ soko, “there” or 端っこ hashikko, “edge, end, tip”). Compare (deko, protrusion), likely a compound of (de, coming out) + (ko, place, suffixing element).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana ぼこ, romaji boko)

  1. an indentation, a dip or divot, a hollow, a dent in a surface
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  4. ^ 1995, 大辞泉 (Daijisen) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, ISBN 4-09-501211-0

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(yo)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: yo, McCune-Reischauer: yo)
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VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(ao)

  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.