Last modified on 11 December 2014, at 07:22

See also: and

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
下-order.gif
Stroke order
下-bw.png

EtymologyEdit

下 in its shell and bone form is an ideogram (指事) that shows the concept of down by showing one line below another (contrast ). The shell and bone form evolved into 下, the character used today. (See earlier forms here.)

Han characterEdit

(radical 1 +2, 3 strokes, cangjie input 一卜 (MY), four-corner 10230)

  1. under, underneath, below
  2. down
  3. inferior
  4. bring down

AntonymsEdit

See alsoEdit

  • (also means “down” in some uses)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 76, character 10
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 14
  • Dae Jaweon: page 147, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 7, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+4E0B

ChineseEdit

simpl. and trad.

PronunciationEdit


Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (下), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: 匣 (33)
Final: 麻
Division: II

Openness: Open
Tone: Rising (X)

Fanqie: 胡雅切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ɦɣaX/ /ɣaX/ /ɣaX/ /ɦɯaX/ /ɦaɨX/ /ɣaX/ /ɣaX/
Character (下), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: 匣 (33)
Final: 麻
Division: II

Openness: Open
Tone: Departing (H)

Fanqie: 胡駕切
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Bernard
Karlgren
Li
Rong
Pan
Wuyun
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Wang
Li
Shao
Rongfen
/ɦɣaH/ /ɣaH/ /ɣaH/ /ɦɯaH/ /ɦaɨH/ /ɣaH/ /ɣaH/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
xià ‹ haeX › /*gˤraʔ/ down
xià ‹ haeH › /*m-gˤraʔ-s/ descend

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
13445 0 /*ɡraːʔ/
13446 0 /*ɡraːs/

VerbEdit

(traditional and simplified, Pinyin xià)

  1. to go down
    下船 (xiàchuán)
    to disembark from a boat
    下樓, 下楼 (xiàlóu)
    to go downstairs
    下山 (xiàshān)
    to go down the mountain
    走下 (zǒuxià)
    to walk down
  2. to get out of
    下床 (xiàchuáng)
    to get out of bed
  3. to fall down
    落下 (luòxià)
    to fall down
    下雪 (xiàxuě)
    to snow
    下雨 (xiàyǔ)
    to rain
  4. to issue
    下令 (xiàlìng)
    to issue an order
  5. to put in
    下面條, 下面条 (xiàmiàntiáo)
    to put noodles into boiling water
  6. to give
  7. to begin
    下筆, 下笔 (xiàbǐ)
    to start writing
  8. to finish
    下班 (xiàbān)
    to get off work
    下课 (xiàkè)
    to finish class
  9. to give birth (as an animal)
    下豬仔, 下猪仔 (xiàzhūzǎi)
    to have piglets
  10. to lay
    下蛋 (xiàdàn)
    to lay eggs
  11. (colloquial)to download
    先去下个软件。
    Download the software first.
  12. used after a verb to express height
  13. used after a verb to express space
  14. used after a verb to express the separation of an object
  15. used after a verb to express the end of an action

AdjectiveEdit

(traditional and simplified, Pinyin xià)

  1. low
    下層, 下层 (xiàcéng)
    lower level
  1. inferior
    下品 (xiàpǐn)
    inferior products
  1. next
    下次 (xiàcì)
    next time

PostpositionEdit

(traditional and simplified, Pinyin xià)

  1. under
    樹下, 树下 (shùxià)
    under the tree
    在些個條件下, 在这些条件下 (zài zhèxiē tiáojiàn xià)
    under these conditions
  1. down
    樓下, 楼下 (lóuxià)
    downstairs
  1. with
    在朋友的幫助下, 在朋友的帮助下 (zài péngyou de bāngzhù xià)
    with help from friends

ClassifierEdit

(traditional and simplified, Pinyin xià)

  1. used when counting time

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana した, romaji shita)

  1. the below

NounEdit

(hiragana しも, romaji shimo)

  1. lower portion, end

NounEdit

(hiragana もと, romaji moto)

  1. lower portion; base
  2. under the influence of

SuffixEdit

(hiragana , romaji -ka)

  1. under a situation

NounEdit

(hiragana , romaji ge)

  1. the last volume in a two- or three-volume set

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(ha)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (revised: ha, McCune-Reischauer: ha)
  • Name (hangeul): 아래 (revised: alae, McCune-Reischauer: arae)
  1. This entry needs a definition. Please add one, then remove {{defn}}.

ReferencesEdit


VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(hạ)

  1. Below
  2. To go below, under, or to fall
        下山: to go down a mountain
  1. To sent:
        下令: to command, to sent an order
  1. Strip off:
        下枪: to strip off one's weapon
  1. To decide:
        下藥: to give prescription