ArabicEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From the root ك ف ر(k-f-r)

VerbEdit

كَفَرَ (kafara) I, non-past يَكْفُرُ‎‎ (yakfuru)

  1. (intransitive or transitive with بِ) to disbelieve (in), to close oneself off to
    • 609–632 C.E., Qur'an, 2:212:
      زُيِّنَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٱ ٱلْحَيَاةُ ٱلدُّنْيَا وَيَسْخَرُونَ مِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ ٱتَّقَوْا فَوْقَهُمْ يَوْمَ ٱلْقِيَامَةِ وَٱللّٰهُ يَرْزُقُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ
      zuyyina lillaḏīna kafarū l-ḥayātu d-dunyā wayasḵarūna mina llaḏīna ʾāmanū wāllaḏīna ttaqaw fawqahum yawma l-qiyāmati wal-lāhu yarzuqu man yašāʾu biḡayri ḥisābin
      Beautified is the life of this world for those who disbelieve, and they mock at those who believe. But those who fear [Allah] are above them on the Day of Resurrection, and Allah begifts whom He wills without account.
    • 609–632 C.E., Qur'an, 2:256:
      لَا إِكْرَاهَ فِي ٱلدِّينِ ۖ قَدْ تَبَيَّنَ ٱلرُّشْدُ مِنَ ٱلْغَيِّ ۚ فَمَنْ يَكْفُرْ بِٱلطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِنْ بِٱللَّهِ فَقَدِ ٱسْتَمْسَكَ بِٱلْعُرْوَةِ ٱلْوُثْقَىٰ لَا ٱنْفِصَامَ لَهَا ۗ وَٱللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
      lā ʾikrāha fī d-dīni qad tabayyana r-rušdu mina l-ḡayyi faman yakfur bi-ṭ-ṭāḡūti wayuʾmin bi-l-lahi faqadi stamsaka bi-l-ʿurwati l-wuṯqā lā nfiṣāma lahā wal-lahu samīʿun ʿalīmun
      (please add an English translation of this quote)
  2. (transitive or with بِ) to be ungrateful
    • 609–632 C.E., Qur'an, 2:152:
      فَٱذْكُرُونِي أَذْكُرْكُمْ وَٱشْكُرُوا لِي وَلَا تَكْفُرُونِ
      faḏkurūnī ʾaḏkurkum waškurū lī walā takfurūni
      (please add an English translation of this quote)
  3. (construed with بِ(bi)) to disclaim association with, to renounce
    • 609–632 C.E., Qur'an, 35:14:
      إِن تَدْعُوهُمْ لَا يَسْمَعُوا دُعَاءَكُمْ وَلَوْ سَمِعُوا مَا ٱسْتَجَابُوا لَكُمْۖ وَيَوْمَ ٱلْقِيَامَةِ يَكْفُرُونَ بِشِرْكِكُمْۚ وَلَا يُنَبِّئُكَ مِثْلُ خَبِيرٍ
      ʾin tadʿūhum lā yasmaʿū duʿāʾakum walaw samiʿū mā stajābū lakum wayawma l-qiyāmati yakfurūna biširkikum walā yunabbiʾuka miṯlu ḵabīrin
      If you invoke them they will not hear your invocation, and even if they heard they cannot respond to you, and on the Day of Resurrection they will forswear your polytheism, and none can inform you like the One who is all-aware.
ConjugationEdit
AntonymsEdit

VerbEdit

كَفَرَ (kafara) I, non-past يَكْفُرُor يَكْفِرُ‎‎ (yakfuru or yakfiru)

  1. to cover, hide
ConjugationEdit

NounEdit

كُفْر (kufrm

  1. verbal noun of كَفَرَ (kafara) (form I)
    1. disbelief; disacknowledgment
    2. ingratitude
DeclensionEdit

NounEdit

كَفْر (kafrm

  1. verbal noun of كَفَرَ (kafara) (form I)
  2. darkness, blackness
  3. earth, dust
  4. grave, sepulcher
DeclensionEdit

VerbEdit

كَفَّرَ (kaffara) II, non-past يُكَفِّرُ‎‎ (yukaffiru)

  1. to cover, hide
  2. to expiate, do penance, atone
  3. to forgive, grant pardon
  4. to make an infidel, seduce to unbelief
  5. to accuse of infidelity, charge with unbelief
ConjugationEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Borrowed from Aramaic כַּפְרָא‎ /‏ ܟܰܦܪܳܐ(kap̄rā, village, open town, unfortified town), from Akkadian 𒅗𒀊𒊒 (kapru, farm, village; a settlement outside of a city), considered to represent a word particular to the non-Akkadian “Mari language”, that is to be formed either in the unknown East Semitic or the unknown Amorite language spoken there. Probably originally meaning an agricultural storage-room, doublet of غَفْر(ḡafr), related to the meaning of “covering” connecting the roots غ ف ر(ḡ-f-r), כ־פ־ר(k-p-r). Compare Hebrew כְּפָר(kp̄ār, village).

NounEdit

كَفْر (kafrm (plural كُفُور(kufūr))

  1. open, town, village, suburb
    • لَا تَسْكُنِ الْكُفُورَ، فَإِنَّ سَاكِنَ الْكُفُورِ كَسَاكِنِ الْقُبُورِ
      lā taskuni l-kufūra, faʾinna sākina l-kufūri kasākini l-qubūri
      Don’t dwell in the suburbs, for he who dwells in the suburbs is like a dweller of the graves.
DeclensionEdit
Usage notesEdit

Not retained anymore except in place-names.

Etymology 3Edit

Borrowed from Aramaic כּוּפְרָא‎ /‎ ܟܘܦܪܐ(kūp̄rā, pitch, tar; asphalt), from Akkadian 𒇒𒌓𒀀 (kupru, bitumen, pitch), from Akkadian 𒅗𒉺𒊒 (kapāru, to smear or daub on). Doublet of غُفْرَان(ḡufrān). Compare Old Armenian կուպր (kupr), a Semitic borrowing.

NounEdit

كُفْر (kufrm

  1. pitch, tar
DeclensionEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • kpr”, in The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon Project, Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College, 1986–
  • kpwr”, in The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon Project, Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College, 1986–
  • Dozy, Reinhart Pieter Anne (1881) , “كفر”, in Supplément aux dictionnaires arabes (in French), volume 2, Leiden: E. J. Brill, page 476–477
  • Fraenkel, Siegmund (1886) Die aramäischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen (in German), Leiden: E. J. Brill, page 150
  • Fraenkel, Siegmund (1886) Die aramäischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen (in German), Leiden: E. J. Brill, page 281
  • Freytag, Georg (1837) , “كفر”, in Lexicon arabico-latinum praesertim ex Djeuharii Firuzabadiique et aliorum Arabum operibus adhibitis Golii quoque et aliorum libris confectum (in Latin), volume 4, Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, pages 46–47
  • Kazimirski, Albin de Biberstein (1860) , “كفر”, in Dictionnaire arabe-français contenant toutes les racines de la langue arabe, leurs dérivés, tant dans l’idiome vulgaire que dans l’idiome littéral, ainsi que les dialectes d’Alger et de Maroc (in French), volume 2, Paris: Maisonneuve et Cie, pages 913–914
  • Lane, Edward William (1863) , “كفر”, in Arabic-English Lexicon, London: Williams & Norgate, page 2620–2621
  • Steingass, Francis Joseph (1884) , “كفر”, in The Student's Arabic–English Dictionary[1], London: W.H. Allen, page 890
  • Wahrmund, Adolf (1887) , “كفر”, in Handwörterbuch der neu-arabischen und deutschen Sprache (in German), volume 2, Gießen: J. Ricker’sche Buchhandlung, pages 585–586
  • Wehr, Hans (1979) , “كفر”, in J. Milton Cowan, editor, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 4th edition, Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services, →ISBN, page 975
  • Wehr, Hans; Kropfitsch, Lorenz (1985) , “كفر”, in Arabisches Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart (in German), 5th edition, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, published 2011, →ISBN, page 1110

Hijazi ArabicEdit

 
كَفَر

Etymology 1Edit

From English cover. Doublet of كڤر(kavar).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

كفر (kafarm (plural كفرات(kafarāt))

  1. tire, tyre
  2. vehicle’s wheel

Etymology 2Edit

From Arabic كَفَرَ(kafara).

PronunciationEdit

VerbEdit

كفر (kafar) (non-past يكفر‎, form I)

  1. to disbelieve

Etymology 2Edit

From Arabic كُفْر(kufr).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

كفر (kufurm

  1. apostasy
  2. infidelity