Arabic

edit

Etymology 1

edit
Root
ك ف ر (k f r)
8 terms

Verb

edit

كَفَرَ (kafara) I, non-past يَكْفُرُ‎ (yakfuru)

  1. (intransitive or transitive with بِ) to disbelieve (in), to close oneself off to
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 2:212:
      زُيِّنَ لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوٱ ٱلْحَيَاةُ ٱلدُّنْيَا وَيَسْخَرُونَ مِنَ ٱلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَالَّذِينَ ٱتَّقَوْا فَوْقَهُمْ يَوْمَ ٱلْقِيَامَةِ وَٱللّٰهُ يَرْزُقُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ
      zuyyina lillaḏīna kafarū l-ḥayātu d-dunyā wayasḵarūna mina llaḏīna ʔāmanū wāllaḏīna ttaqaw fawqahum yawma l-qiyāmati wal-lāhu yarzuqu man yašāʔu biḡayri ḥisābin
      Beautified is the life of this world for those who disbelieve, and they mock at those who believe. But those who fear [Allah] are above them on the Day of Resurrection, and Allah begifts whom He wills without account.
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 2:256:
      لَا إِكْرَاهَ فِي ٱلدِّينِ ۖ قَدْ تَبَيَّنَ ٱلرُّشْدُ مِنَ ٱلْغَيِّ ۚ فَمَنْ يَكْفُرْ بِٱلطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِنْ بِٱللَّهِ فَقَدِ ٱسْتَمْسَكَ بِٱلْعُرْوَةِ ٱلْوُثْقَىٰ لَا ٱنْفِصَامَ لَهَا ۗ وَٱللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
      lā ʾikrāha fī d-dīni qad tabayyana r-rušdu mina l-ḡayyi faman yakfur bi-ṭ-ṭāḡūti wayuʾmin bi-l-lahi faqadi stamsaka bi-l-ʿurwati l-wuṯqā lā nfiṣāma lahā wal-lahu samīʿun ʿalīmun
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)
  2. (transitive or with بِ) to be ungrateful
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 2:152:
      فَٱذْكُرُونِي أَذْكُرْكُمْ وَٱشْكُرُوا لِي وَلَا تَكْفُرُونِ
      faḏkurūnī ʔaḏkurkum waškurū lī walā takfurūni
      (please add an English translation of this quotation)
  3. (construed with بِ (bi)) to disclaim association with, to renounce
    • 609–632 CE, Qur'an, 35:14:
      إِن تَدْعُوهُمْ لَا يَسْمَعُوا دُعَاءَكُمْ وَلَوْ سَمِعُوا مَا ٱسْتَجَابُوا لَكُمْۖ وَيَوْمَ ٱلْقِيَامَةِ يَكْفُرُونَ بِشِرْكِكُمْۚ وَلَا يُنَبِّئُكَ مِثْلُ خَبِيرٍ
      ʔin tadʕūhum lā yasmaʕū duʕāʔakum walaw samiʕū mā stajābū lakum wayawma l-qiyāmati yakfurūna biširkikum walā yunabbiʔuka miṯlu ḵabīrin
      If you invoke them they will not hear your invocation, and even if they heard they cannot respond to you, and on the Day of Resurrection they will forswear your polytheism, and none can inform you like the One who is all-aware.
Conjugation
edit
Antonyms
edit
  • (antonym(s) of to disbelieve): آمَنَ (ʔāmana)
  • (antonym(s) of to be ungrateful): شَكَرَ (šakara)

Verb

edit

كَفَرَ (kafara) I, non-past يَكْفُرُ or يَكْفِرُ‎ (yakfuru or yakfiru)

  1. to cover, hide
Conjugation
edit

Noun

edit

كُفْر (kufrm

  1. verbal noun of كَفَرَ (kafara) (form I)
    1. disbelief; disacknowledgment
    2. ingratitude
Declension
edit
Descendants
edit

Noun

edit

كَفْر (kafrm

  1. verbal noun of كَفَرَ (kafara) (form I)
  2. darkness, blackness
  3. earth, dust
  4. grave, sepulcher
Declension
edit

Verb

edit

كَفَّرَ (kaffara) II, non-past يُكَفِّرُ‎ (yukaffiru)

  1. (religion) to expiate, do penance, atone
    كفّر عن ذنوبهHe atoned for his sins.
  2. to forgive, grant pardon
  3. (religion) to accuse of infidelity, charge with unbelief
  4. (religion) to make an infidel, seduce to unbelief
  5. (dated) to cover, hide
Conjugation
edit

Etymology 2

edit

Borrowed from Aramaic כַּפְרָא /‏ ܟܰܦܪܳܐ (kap̄rā, village, open town, unfortified town), from Akkadian 𒅗𒀊𒊒 (kaprum, farm, village; a settlement outside of a city), considered to represent a word particular to the non-Akkadian “Mari language”, that is to be formed either in the unknown East Semitic or the unknown Amorite language spoken there. Probably originally meaning an agricultural storage-room, doublet of غَفْر (ḡafr), related to the meaning of “covering” connecting the roots غ ف ر (ḡ-f-r), כ־פ־ר (k-p-r). Compare Hebrew כְּפָר (kp̄ār, village).

Noun

edit

كَفْر (kafrm (plural كُفُور (kufūr))

  1. open, town, village, suburb
    • 7th century CE, Al-ʾAdab al-Mufrad, 30:42:
      لَا تَسْكُنِ الْكُفُورَ، فَإِنَّ سَاكِنَ الْكُفُورِ كَسَاكِنِ الْقُبُورِ
      lā taskuni l-kufūra, faʔinna sākina l-kufūri kasākini l-qubūri
      Don’t dwell in the suburbs, for he who dwells in the suburbs is like a dweller of the graves.
Usage notes
edit

Not retained anymore except in place-names.

Declension
edit

Etymology 3

edit

Borrowed from Aramaic כּוּפְרָא / ܟܘܦܪܐ (kūp̄rā, pitch, tar; asphalt), from Akkadian 𒇒𒌓𒀀 (kupru, bitumen, pitch), from Akkadian 𒅗𒉺𒊒 (kapāru, to smear or daub on). Doublet of غُفْرَان (ḡufrān). Compare Old Armenian կուպր (kupr), a Semitic borrowing.

Noun

edit

كُفْر (kufrm

  1. pitch, tar
Declension
edit

Etymology 4

edit

Borrowed from English cover.

Noun

edit

كَفَر (kavar, kafarm (plural كفرات (kavarāt, kafarāt))

  1. (electronics) cover, case

References

edit
  • kpr”, in The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon Project, Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College, 1986–
  • kpwr”, in The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon Project, Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College, 1986–
  • Dozy, Reinhart Pieter Anne (1881) “كفر”, in Supplément aux dictionnaires arabes[1] (in French), volume 2, Leiden: E. J. Brill, pages 476–477
  • Fraenkel, Siegmund (1886) Die aramäischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen (in German), Leiden: E. J. Brill, page 150
  • Fraenkel, Siegmund (1886) Die aramäischen Fremdwörter im Arabischen (in German), Leiden: E. J. Brill, page 281
  • Freytag, Georg (1837) “كفر”, in Lexicon arabico-latinum praesertim ex Djeuharii Firuzabadiique et aliorum Arabum operibus adhibitis Golii quoque et aliorum libris confectum[2] (in Latin), volume 4, Halle: C. A. Schwetschke, pages 46–47
  • Kazimirski, Albin de Biberstein (1860) “كفر”, in Dictionnaire arabe-français contenant toutes les racines de la langue arabe, leurs dérivés, tant dans l’idiome vulgaire que dans l’idiome littéral, ainsi que les dialectes d’Alger et de Maroc[3] (in French), volume 2, Paris: Maisonneuve et Cie, pages 913–914
  • Lane, Edward William (1863) “كفر”, in Arabic-English Lexicon[4], London: Williams & Norgate, pages 2620–2621
  • Steingass, Francis Joseph (1884) “كفر”, in The Student's Arabic–English Dictionary[5], London: W.H. Allen, page 890
  • Wahrmund, Adolf (1887) “كفر”, in Handwörterbuch der neu-arabischen und deutschen Sprache[6] (in German), volume 2, Gießen: J. Ricker’sche Buchhandlung, pages 585–586
  • Wehr, Hans (1979) “كفر”, in J. Milton Cowan, editor, A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic, 4th edition, Ithaca, NY: Spoken Language Services, →ISBN, page 975
  • Wehr, Hans with Kropfitsch, Lorenz (1985) “كفر”, in Arabisches Wörterbuch für die Schriftsprache der Gegenwart[7] (in German), 5th edition, Wiesbaden: Otto Harrassowitz, published 2011, →ISBN, page 1110

Hijazi Arabic

edit
Root
ك ف ر
1 term

Etymology 1

edit

From Arabic كَفَرَ (kafara).

Pronunciation

edit

Verb

edit

كفر (kafar) I (non-past يِكْفُر (yikfur))

  1. to disbelieve
Conjugation
edit
    Conjugation of كفر (kafar)
singular plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
past m كفرت (kafart) كفرت (kafart) كفر (kafar) كفرنا (kafarna) كفرتوا (kafartu) كفروا (kafaru)
f كفرتي (kafarti) كفرت (kafarat)
non-past m أكفر (ʔakfur) تكفر (tikfur) يكفر (yikfur) نكفر (nikfur) تكفروا (tikfuru) يكفروا (yikfuru)
f تكفري (tikfuri) تكفر (tikfur)
imperative m اكفر (akfur) اكفروا (akfuru)
f اكفري (akfuri)

Etymology 2

edit

From Arabic كَفَّرَ (kaffara).

Pronunciation

edit

Verb

edit

كفر (kaffar) II (non-past يِكَفِّر (yikaffir))

  1. (religion) to expiate, do penance, atone
  2. (religion) to accuse of infidelity, charge with unbelief
Conjugation
edit
    Conjugation of كفر (kaffar)
singular plural
1st person 2nd person 3rd person 1st person 2nd person 3rd person
past m كفرت (kaffart) كفرت (kaffart) كفر (kaffar) كفرنا (kaffarna) كفرتوا (kaffartu) كفروا (kaffaru)
f كفرتي (kaffarti) كفرت (kaffarat)
non-past m أكفر (ʔakaffir) تكفر (tikaffir) يكفر (yikaffir) نكفر (nikaffir) تكفروا (tikaffiru) يكفروا (yikaffiru)
f تكفري (tikaffiri) تكفر (tikaffir)
imperative m كفر (kaffir) كفروا (kaffiru)
f كفري (kaffiri)

Etymology 3

edit

From Arabic كُفْر (kufr).

Pronunciation

edit

Noun

edit

كفر (kufurm

  1. apostasy
  2. infidelity

Etymology 4

edit
 
كَفَر

From English cover.

Pronunciation

edit
  • IPA(key): /ka.far/ (common pronunciation mainly used for the sense of "a vehicle's tire")
    • IPA(key): /ka.var/ (common pronunciation for all senses but seldom used so for the first one)

Noun

edit

كفر (kafar or kavarm (plural كفرات (kafarāt, kavarāt))

  1. tire, tyre, vehicle’s wheel
  2. A device's case
  3. A cover, cover song, cover version (rerecording of a previously recorded song, typically by a different artist).

Ottoman Turkish

edit

Etymology

edit

Borrowed from Arabic كُفْر (kufr, disbelief; ingratitude), verbal noun of كَفَرَ (kafara, to disbelieve in).

Noun

edit

كفر (küfr)

  1. disbelief, incredulity, the inability to believe that something is the case
    Synonym: اینانمزلق (inanmazlık)
  2. infidelity, faithlessness, unbelief, the rejection of religious belief
  3. (religion) atheism, irreligion, a lack of belief in deities or in God
    Synonyms: ایمانسزلق (imansızlık), دینسزلك (dinsizlik)
  4. blasphemy, profanity, any act of irreverence or contempt toward a god

Derived terms

edit

Descendants

edit

Further reading

edit