Japanese

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
kun’yomi

Etymology

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⟨idu⟩/id͡zu//d͡zu//d͡zuru//deru/

From Old Japanese 出づ (idu), from Proto-Japonic *intu.

The initial i fell out in compounds where the preceding element ended in i. The du form on its own was not used much outside of compounds until the Kamakura period.[1][2]

The ending then shifted from -duru (modern -dzuru) to -deru, a shift common to all 下二段活用 (shimo nidan katsuyō, lower bigrade conjugation) verbs that occurred from the late Muromachi period through the early Edo period.

Some sources trace the development instead as ⟨idu⟩⟨iduru⟩/id͡zuru//d͡zuru//deru/.[3]

Pronunciation

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  • Tokyo pitch accent of conjugated forms of "出る"
Source: Online Japanese Accent Dictionary
Stem forms
Terminal (終止形)
Attributive (連体形)
出る [déꜜrù]
Imperative (命令形) 出ろ [déꜜrò]
Key constructions
Passive 出られる られ [dèráréꜜrù]
Causative 出させる させ [dèsáséꜜrù]
Potential 出られる られ [dèráréꜜrù]
Volitional 出よう [dèyóꜜò]
Negative 出ない ない [déꜜnàì]
Negative perfective 出なかった なかった [déꜜnàkàttà]
Formal 出ます [dèmáꜜsù]
Perfective 出た [déꜜtà]
Conjunctive 出て [déꜜtè]
Hypothetical conditional 出れば れば [déꜜrèbà]

Verb

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() (deruintransitive ichidan (stem () (de), past () (deta))

Japanese verb pair
active () (())
mediopassive () (())
  1. to leave a place
    ()()()heya o deruto leave a room
    Antonym: 入る (hairu)
  2. to go out
    (そと)()soto ni deru.I'll go outside.
    (たび)()tabi ni deru.I'll go out on a trip.
  3. to come forth, to be or become apparent, to appear
    ()()obake ga deta.A spirit appeared.
    ()()いるよ。chi ga dete iru yo.You're bleeding. (literally, “Blood is coming out.”)
  4. to make an appearance, to appear
    • 2007, various contributors, 石川セリ (Ishikawa Seri), in Japanese Wikipedia, [2]
      もっとテレビ()(くだ)さい。
      Motto terebi ni dete kudasai.
      Please make more TV appearances.
    (しゃ)(かい)()shakai ni deruto go out into the world; to enter society
  5. (by extension) to answer (the phone or door)
    (でん)()()denwa ni deru.I'll answer the phone.
    (わたし)()watashi ga deru.I'll answer the door.
  6. (vulgar, specifically of semen) to exit the penis during ejaculation

Conjugation

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Derived terms

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Idioms

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Proverbs

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References

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  1. ^ Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ Matsumura, Akira (1995) 大辞泉 [Daijisen] (in Japanese), First edition, Tokyo: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  4. ^ Uwano, Zendo (2002 October 31) “見島方言の用言のアクセント調査報告 [A Report on the Accentual Surveys of Verbs and Adjectives in the Mishima Dialect]”, in 環太平洋の「消滅に瀕した言語」にかんする緊急調査研究 [Endangered languages of the Pacific Rim]‎[1], →ISSN, archived from the original on 25 September 2022
  5. ^ Kindaichi, Kyōsuke et al., editors (1997), 新明解国語辞典 [Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten] (in Japanese), Fifth edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  6. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN