See also: and
U+5916, 外
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5916

[U+5915]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5917]

Translingual

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Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han character

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(Kangxi radical 36, +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 弓戈卜 (NIY), four-corner 23200, composition (GHTVHK))

Derived characters

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References

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  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 246, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5750
  • Dae Jaweon: page 487, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 860, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5916

Chinese

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trad.
simp. #
alternative forms 𡖄

Glyph origin

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Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Phono-semantic compound (形聲形声, OC *ŋʷaːds) : semantic + phonetic (OC *ŋod).

According to 学研漢和大字典 (Kenkyūsha Kanwa Dai Jiten), it is also an ideogrammic compound (會意会意) ; originally represents a crescent moon (i.e. the moon with part “missing” to the observer). The character is thus interpreted as representing divination based on the partial phase of the moon, implying the remaining visible part of the moon is the moon's ‘outside’. (Can this(+) etymology be sourced?)

Pronunciation

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Note: wei4 appears in some phrases.
Note:
  • nguôi - literary;
  • ngiê - colloquial.
Note:
  • gōa/giua - colloquial;
  • gōe/ngoǎi/goǎi - literary.
Note:
  • 6nga - colloquial;
  • 6we - literary.
Note: uai4 - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /uai⁵¹/
Harbin /uai⁵³/
Tianjin /vai⁵³/
Jinan /vɛ²¹/
Qingdao /vɛ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /uai³¹²/
Xi'an /uai⁴⁴/
Xining /uɛ²¹³/
Yinchuan /vɛ¹³/
Lanzhou /vɛ¹³/
Ürümqi /vai²¹³/
Wuhan /uai³⁵/
Chengdu /uai¹³/
Guiyang /uai²¹³/
Kunming /uæ²¹²/
Nanjing /uae⁴⁴/
Hefei /ue̞⁵³/
/ue⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /vai⁴⁵/
Pingyao /uæ³⁵/
Hohhot /vɛ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ŋa²³/
Suzhou /ŋɑ³¹/
Hangzhou /ɦue̞¹³/
Wenzhou /va²²/
Hui Shexian /uɛ²²/
/ŋa²²/
Tunxi /ŋa¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /uai⁵⁵/
/uai¹¹/
Xiangtan /uai²¹/
Gan Nanchang /uai²¹/
Hakka Meixian /ŋoi⁵³/
Taoyuan /ŋoi⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ŋɔi²²/
Nanning /ŋɔi²²/
Hong Kong /ŋɔi²²/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /gue²²/
/gua²²/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /ŋuɔi²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /kuɛ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /gua³¹/
Haikou (Hainanese) /ŋɔi³³/
/hua²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (26)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Baxter ngwajH
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋuɑiH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋʷɑiH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋuɑiH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋwajH/
Li
Rong
/ŋuɑiH/
Wang
Li
/ŋuɑiH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋuɑiH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
wèi
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
ngoi6
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
wài
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngwajH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ŋ]ʷˁa[t]-s/
English outside

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 12606
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋʷaːds/

Definitions

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  1. out; outside; external
    Antonyms: (),
      ―  chuāng wài  ―  outside a window
      ―  wàibiǎo  ―  outward appearance
  2. beyond; above; in addition to; other than; except
      ―  wài  ―  in addition (to this)
    公里  ―  shí gōnglǐ wài  ―  10 km beyond (a place)
  3. other; foreign; alien (not of one's own family, clan, locality, school, country, etc.)
      ―  wàiguó  ―  foreign country
      ―  wài xiào  ―  other schools
  4. foreign country
      ―  zhōngwài  ―  China and foreign countries; in and outside of China
    貿易贸易  ―  duì wài màoyì  ―  foreign trade
    詞典词典  ―  hàn-wài cídiǎn  ―  Chinese dictionary in a foreign language
  5. (literary) to alienate; to other; to exclude; to distance
      ―  jiànwài  ―  to make me feel like an outsider (literally, "to have me excluded [from the familiar circle]")
  6. relatives of one's mother, sister or daughter
      ―  wài  ―  maternal grandmother
      ―  wàisūn  ―  daughter's son
    祖父  ―  wàizǔfù  ―  maternal grandfather
  7. additional
      ―  wàijiā  ―  plus
      ―  wàidài  ―  to include (something) as well
  8. unofficial
      ―  wàishǐ  ―  unofficial history
      ―  wàihào  ―  nickname
  9. (Hokkien, Teochew, after an amount but before the classifier) as much as
    二十二十 [Hokkien]  ―  jī-cha̍p gōa hòe [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  20-something years old

Synonyms

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Compounds

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Descendants

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Sino-Xenic ():
  • Japanese: () (ge); (がい) (gai)
  • Korean: 외(外) (oe)
  • Vietnamese: ngoại ()

Others:

References

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Japanese

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Kanji

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(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. outside
  2. foreign
  3. other
  4. except

Readings

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Etymology 1

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Kanji in this term
そと
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Appears from roughly the Muromachi period,[1] superseding earlier to reading (see below). Likely a compound of either (so, back, behind, ancient reading found in compounds) +‎ (to, outside), or (so, back, behind, ancient reading found in compounds) +‎ (to, place).[2]

Pronunciation

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Noun

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(そと) (soto

  1. (the) outside
    (はこ)(そと)
    hako no soto
    outside of the box
    (そと)(あめ)
    soto wa ame
    it is raining outside
    (literally, “outside is rain”)

Etymology 2

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Kanji in this term
ほか
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *poka.

Related to Baekje ホカ (*poka, outside),[4] compare Korean (bak, outside).

Alternative forms

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Pronunciation

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Noun

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(ほか) (hoka

  1. other (things); the rest

Etymology 3

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Kanji in this term
よそ
Grade: 2
irregular
For pronunciation and definitions of – see the following entry.
余所よそ
[noun] another place
[noun] a place outside one's family or group
[noun] an unrelated person, place, or thing
Alternative spelling
他所
(This term, , is an alternative spelling of the above term.)

Etymology 4

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Pronunciation

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Noun

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() (to

  1. (the) outside
  2. toilet

Etymology 5

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Kanji in this term
がい
Grade: 2
on’yomi

Middle Chinese (ŋuɑiH)

Pronunciation

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Suffix

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(がい) (-gaiぐわい (gwai)?

  1. outside; external
  2. except for
Derived terms
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Etymology 6

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Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC ngwajH).

Pronunciation

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Noun

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() (ge

  1. (Buddhism) non-Buddhist teachings or texts
  2. (in compounds) external
Derived terms
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Usage notes

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The printed form of this character often differs from its handwritten form; in the latter, the last stroke often does not pass through, as in the printed Chinese form.

References

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  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  2. ^ Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  3. 3.0 3.1 NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tokyo: NHK Publishing, Inc., →ISBN
  4. ^ John Bentley (2000) “New Look at Paekche and Korean: Data from Nihon shoki”, in Language Research[1], volume 36, number 2, Seoul National University, pages 417—443

Korean

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Etymology

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From Middle Chinese (MC ngwajH).

Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 ᅌᅬᆼ〮 (Yale: ngwóy)
Middle Korean
Text Eumhun
Gloss (hun) Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[3] (Yale: pàs) 외〯 (Yale: wǒy)

Pronunciation

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  • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [we̞(ː)] ~ [ø̞(ː)]
  • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)/(ː)]
    • Though still prescribed in Standard Korean, most speakers in both Koreas no longer distinguish vowel length.

Hanja

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Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun 바깥 (bakkat oe))

  1. Hanja form? of (outside; surface). [affix]

Compounds

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References

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  • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [4]

Vietnamese

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Han character

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: Hán Nôm readings: ngoại, ngoái, ngoải, ngoài, nguậy

  • This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

Readings

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  • Nôm: ngoái, ngoài, ngoại, ngòi, ngồi

Compounds

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References

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  • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
  • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville