Open main menu

Wiktionary β

See also:
U+5916, 外
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5916

[U+5915]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5917]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 36 +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 弓戈卜 (NIY), four-corner 23200, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 246, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5750
  • Dae Jaweon: page 487, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 860, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5916

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ŋʷaːds): semantic  + phonetic  (OC *ŋod).

PronunciationEdit


Note: wei4 appears in some phrases.
Note:
  • nguôi - literary;
  • ngiê - colloquial.
Note:
  • gōe - literary;
  • gōa - colloquial.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /uai⁵¹/
Harbin /uai⁵³/
Tianjin /vai⁵³/
Jinan /vɛ²¹/
Qingdao /vɛ⁴²/
Zhengzhou /uai³¹²/
Xi'an /uai⁴⁴/
Xining /uɛ²¹³/
Yinchuan /vɛ¹³/
Lanzhou /vɛ¹³/
Ürümqi /vai²¹³/
Wuhan /uai³⁵/
Chengdu /uai¹³/
Guiyang /uai²¹³/
Kunming /uæ²¹²/
Nanjing /uae⁴⁴/
Hefei /ue̞⁵³/
/ue⁵³/
Jin Taiyuan /vai⁴⁵/
Pingyao /uæ³⁵/
Hohhot /vɛ⁵⁵/
Wu Shanghai /ŋa²³/
Suzhou /ŋɑ³¹/
Hangzhou /ɦue̞¹³/
Wenzhou /va²²/
Hui Shexian /uɛ²²/
/ŋa²²/
Tunxi /ŋa¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /uai⁵⁵/
/uai¹¹/
Xiangtan /uai²¹/
Gan Nanchang /uai²¹/
Hakka Meixian /ŋoi⁵³/
Taoyuan /ŋoi⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /ŋɔi²²/
Nanning /ŋɔi²²/
Hong Kong /ŋɔi²²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /gue²²/
/gua²²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋuɔi²⁴²/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kuɛ⁴⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /gua³¹/
Haikou (Min Nan) /ŋɔi³³/
/hua²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (31)
Final () (26)
Tone (調) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Closed
Division () I
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ŋuɑiH/
Pan
Wuyun
/ŋʷɑiH/
Shao
Rongfen
/ŋuɑiH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ŋwajH/
Li
Rong
/ŋuɑiH/
Wang
Li
/ŋuɑiH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ŋuɑiH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
wèi
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
wài
Middle
Chinese
‹ ngwajH ›
Old
Chinese
/*[ŋ]ʷˤa[t]-s/
English outside

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 12606
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*ŋʷaːds/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. out, outside, external
    Antonyms: (), (nèi)
  2. beyond, above
  3. not of one's own family, clan, locality, school, country, etc.; foreign
  4. relatives of one's mother, sister or daughter
      ―  wài  ―  maternal grandmother
    /   ―  wàisūn  ―  daughter's son
    祖父  ―  wàizǔfù  ―  maternal grandfather

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. outside
  2. foreign
  3. other
  4. except

ReadingsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term
そと
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Appears from roughly the Muromachi period,[1] superseding earlier to reading (see below). Likely a compound of either (so, back, behind, ancient reading found in compounds) +‎ (to, outside), or (so, back, behind, ancient reading found in compounds) +‎ (to, place).[2]

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana そと, rōmaji soto)

  1. (the) outside

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
ほか
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

PronunciationEdit

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana ほか, rōmaji hoka)

  1. other (things); the rest

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term
Grade: 2
Irregular

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana よそ, rōmaji yoso)

  1. Alternative spelling of 余所

Etymology 4Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji to)

  1. (the) outside
  2. toilet

Etymology 5Edit

Kanji in this term
がい
Grade: 2
on’yomi

Middle Chinese

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

(hiragana がい, rōmaji -gai, historical hiragana ぐわい)

  1. outside; external
  2. except for
Derived termsEdit

Etymology 6Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
on’yomi

From Middle Chinese (MC ŋuɑiH).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

(hiragana , rōmaji ge)

  1. (Buddhism) non-Buddhist teachings or texts
  2. (in compounds) external
Derived termsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3

KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(oe)

  • Eumhun:
    • Sound (hangeul): (revised: oe, McCune-Reischauer: oe, Yale: oy)
    • Name (hangeul): 바깥 (revised: bakkat, McCune-Reischauer: pakkat, Yale: pakkath)
  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(ngoại, ngoái, ngoải, ngoài, nguậy)

  • This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

ReadingsEdit

  • Nôm: ngoái, ngoài, ngoại, ngòi, ngồi

CompoundsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
  • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
  • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville