See also: and
U+5916, 外
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5916

[U+5915]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5917]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 36, +2, 5 strokes, cangjie input 弓戈卜 (NIY), four-corner 23200, composition(GHTVHK)))

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 246, character 2
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 5750
  • Dae Jaweon: page 487, character 5
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 860, character 1
  • Unihan data for U+5916

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𡖄

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
       

Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ŋʷaːds): semantic + phonetic (OC *ŋod).

PronunciationEdit


Note: wei4 appears in some phrases.
Note:
  • nguôi - literary;
  • ngiê - colloquial.
  • Min Nan
  • Note:
    • gōe - literary;
    • gōa - colloquial.
  • Wu
  • Xiang
  • Note: uai4 - literary.

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /uai⁵¹/
    Harbin /uai⁵³/
    Tianjin /vai⁵³/
    Jinan /vɛ²¹/
    Qingdao /vɛ⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /uai³¹²/
    Xi'an /uai⁴⁴/
    Xining /uɛ²¹³/
    Yinchuan /vɛ¹³/
    Lanzhou /vɛ¹³/
    Ürümqi /vai²¹³/
    Wuhan /uai³⁵/
    Chengdu /uai¹³/
    Guiyang /uai²¹³/
    Kunming /uæ²¹²/
    Nanjing /uae⁴⁴/
    Hefei /ue̞⁵³/
    /ue⁵³/
    Jin Taiyuan /vai⁴⁵/
    Pingyao /uæ³⁵/
    Hohhot /vɛ⁵⁵/
    Wu Shanghai /ŋa²³/
    Suzhou /ŋɑ³¹/
    Hangzhou /ɦue̞¹³/
    Wenzhou /va²²/
    Hui Shexian /uɛ²²/
    /ŋa²²/
    Tunxi /ŋa¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /uai⁵⁵/
    /uai¹¹/
    Xiangtan /uai²¹/
    Gan Nanchang /uai²¹/
    Hakka Meixian /ŋoi⁵³/
    Taoyuan /ŋoi⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /ŋɔi²²/
    Nanning /ŋɔi²²/
    Hong Kong /ŋɔi²²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /gue²²/
    /gua²²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /ŋuɔi²⁴²/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /kuɛ⁴⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /gua³¹/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /ŋɔi³³/
    /hua²³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (31)
    Final () (26)
    Tone (調) Departing (H)
    Openness (開合) Closed
    Division () I
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ŋuɑiH/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ŋʷɑiH/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ŋuɑiH/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ŋwajH/
    Li
    Rong
    /ŋuɑiH/
    Wang
    Li
    /ŋuɑiH/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ŋuɑiH/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    wèi
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    wài
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ ngwajH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*[ŋ]ʷˁa[t]-s/
    English outside

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 12606
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    1
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ŋʷaːds/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. out; outside; external
      Antonyms: (), (nèi)
    2. beyond; above; in addition to; other than; except
        ―  wài  ―  in addition (to this)
    3. foreign; alien (not of one's own family, clan, locality, school, country, etc.)
      /   ―  wàiguó  ―  foreign country
    4. (literary) to alienate; to other; to exclude; to distance
      /   ―  jiànwài  ―  to make me feel like an outsider (literally, "to have me excluded [from the familiar circle]")
    5. relatives of one's mother, sister or daughter
        ―  wài  ―  maternal grandmother
      /   ―  wàisūn  ―  daughter's son
      祖父  ―  wàizǔfù  ―  maternal grandfather

    CompoundsEdit

    DescendantsEdit

    Sino-Xenic ():
    • Japanese: () (ge); (がい) (gai)
    • Korean: (, oe)
    • Vietnamese: ngoại ()

    Others:

    • Vietnamese: ngoài (outside)

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. outside
    2. foreign
    3. other
    4. except

    ReadingsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    そと
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    Appears from roughly the Muromachi period,[1] superseding earlier to reading (see below). Likely a compound of either (so, back, behind, ancient reading found in compounds) +‎ (to, outside), or (so, back, behind, ancient reading found in compounds) +‎ (to, place).[2]

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (そと) (soto

    1. (the) outside

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    ほか
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    PronunciationEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    NounEdit

    (ほか) (hoka

    1. other (things); the rest

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term
    Grade: 2
    Irregular

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (よそ) (yoso

    1. Alternative spelling of 余所

    Etymology 4Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    () (to

    1. (the) outside
    2. toilet

    Etymology 5Edit

    Kanji in this term
    がい
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    Middle Chinese

    PronunciationEdit

    SuffixEdit

    (がい) (-gai (historical kana ぐわい)

    1. outside; external
    2. except for
    Derived termsEdit

    Etymology 6Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋuɑiH).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    () (ge

    1. (Buddhism) non-Buddhist teachings or texts
    2. (in compounds) external
    Derived termsEdit

    Usage notesEdit

    The printed form of this character often differs from its handwritten form; in the latter, the last stroke often does not pass through, as in the printed Chinese form.

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. ^ 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan
    3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ŋuɑiH).

    Historical readings

    PronunciationEdit

    • Phonetic hangeul: [ː/ː]
      Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 바깥 (bakkat oe))

    1. Hanja form? of (outside; oversea).
    2. Hanja form? of (surface).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [1]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (ngoại, ngoái, ngoải, ngoài, nguậy)

    • This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    ReadingsEdit

    • Nôm: ngoái, ngoài, ngoại, ngòi, ngồi

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
    • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
    • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville