See also:

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
出-order.gif

Han characterEdit

(radical 17 +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 山山 (UU), four-corner 22772, composition)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 135, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1811
  • Dae Jaweon: page 301, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 307, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+51FA

ChineseEdit

trad. /
simp.
齣 - only in the classifier sense

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Large seal script Small seal script
出-oracle.svg 出-bronze.svg 出-bigseal.svg 出-seal.svg

Uncertain. For dictionary purposes the bottom element is analyzed as (“container”). The top element resembles (“sprout”), thus analysed by many as "sprout emerging". Oracle bones character may represent a "foot coming out of an enclosure".

PronunciationEdit


Dialectal pronunciations ()
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂʰu⁵⁵/
Harbin /ʈ͡ʂʰu⁴⁴/
/ʈ͡ʂʰu²⁴/ ~去
Tianjin /ʈ͡ʂʰu²¹/
/t͡sʰu²¹/
Jinan /ʈ͡ʂʰu²¹³/
Qingdao /tʃʰu⁵⁵/
Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰu²⁴/
Xi'an /p͡fʰu²¹/
Xining /ʈ͡ʂʰv̩⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂʰu¹³/
Lanzhou /p͡fʰu¹³/
Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂʰu²¹³/
Wuhan /t͡ɕʰy²¹³/
Chengdu /t͡sʰu³¹/
Guiyang /t͡sʰu²¹/
Kunming /ʈ͡ʂʰu³¹/
Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂʰuʔ⁵/
Hefei /ʈ͡ʂʰuəʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰuəʔ²/
Pingyao /t͡sʰuʌʔ¹³/
Hohhot /t͡sʰuəʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /t͡sʰəʔ⁵/
Suzhou /t͡sʰəʔ⁵/
Hangzhou /t͡sʰəʔ⁵/
/t͡sʰz̩ʷəʔ⁵/
Wenzhou /t͡ɕʰy²¹³/
Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰyʔ²¹/
Tunxi /t͡sʰə⁵/
Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕʰy²⁴/
Xiangtan /t͡ɕʰy²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰɨʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰut̚¹/
Taoyuan /tʃʰut̚²²/
Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰøt̚⁵/
Nanning /t͡sʰyt̚⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /t͡sʰøt̚⁵/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sʰut̚³²/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sʰouʔ²³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sʰy²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sʰuk̚²/
Haikou (Min Nan) /sut̚⁵/
Middle Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Character (), Pronunciation 1/2

Initial: (24)
Final: (16)
Tone: Departing (H)

Openness: Closed
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: chuì
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡ɕʰiuɪH/ /t͡ɕʰʷiH/ /t͡ɕʰjuɪH/ /cʰwiH/ /t͡ɕʰuiH/ /t͡ɕʰwiH/ /t͡ɕʰwiH/
Character (), Pronunciation 2/2

Initial: (24)
Final: (52)
Tone: Checked (Ø)

Openness: Closed
Division: III
Fanqie:

Expected Mandarin reflex: chu
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
Pan
Wuyun
Shao
Rongfen
Edwin
Pulleyblank
Li
Rong
Wang
Li
Bernard
Karlgren
/t͡ɕʰiuɪt̚/ /t͡ɕʰʷit̚/ /t͡ɕʰjuet̚/ /cʰwit̚/ /t͡ɕʰiuĕt̚/ /t͡ɕʰĭuĕt̚/ /t͡ɕʰi̯uĕt̚/
Old Chinese pronunciation (, reconstructed)
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character Modern Beijing
(Pinyin)
Middle Chinese Old Chinese English
chū ‹ tsyhwit › /*t-kʰut/ go or come out
chuì ‹ tsyhwijH › /*t-kʰut-s/ bring or take out

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

  • Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
  • Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
  • Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
  • Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
  • Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character No. Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
Corresponding
MC rime
Old Chinese Notes
1545 3 /*kʰljuds/
1578 2 /*kʰljud/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. to go out
    Antonyms: ()
  2. to leave
  3. to appear
  4. to show up
  5. to send out, to put forth
  6. to offer
  7. to exceed
  8. to be in excess
  9. to produce
  10. to happen
  11. to publish
  12. to vent
  13. to sell (one's own thing)
  14. Particle placed after verbs to indicate an outward movement.
  15. Particle placed after verbs to indicate a completed action.
  16. Alternative form of (chū, “classifier for operas, plays, etc.”).

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

ReadingsEdit

CompoundsEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

The 連用形 ‎(ren'yōkei, continuative or stem form) of verb 出る ‎(deru, to come out).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana , romaji de)

  1. the process of something coming out
  2. something that comes out

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
しゅつ
Grade: 1
on'yomi

From Middle Chinese ‎(tsyhwit, to go or come out).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

‎(hiragana しゅつ, romaji shutsu)

  1. being from a certain place
  2. coming out

Etymology 3Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 1
kun'yomi

Contraction of verb 出ず ‎(izu, to go or come out, obsolete)

VerbEdit

‎(nidan conjugation, hiragana , romaji zu, historical hiragana )

  1. (obsolete) to go or come out

Usage notesEdit

The 出る ‎(deru) form is now the standard term for this in modern Japanese.

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, ISBN 4-385-13905-9
  2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, ISBN 978-4-14-011112-3



KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

‎(chul)
Eumhun:

  • Sound (hangeul):  (McCune-Reischauer: ch'ul)
  • Name (hangeul):  (revised: nal, McCune-Reischauer: nal)
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VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(xuất, xuý)

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