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U+51FA, 出
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-51FA

[U+51F9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+51FB]

TranslingualEdit

Stroke order
 
Stroke order
 

Han characterEdit

(radical 17, +3, 5 strokes, cangjie input 山山 (UU), four-corner 22772, composition or ⿻)

Derived charactersEdit

Related charactersEdit

  • (U+5C80, Unorthodox variant)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 135, character 11
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 1811
  • Dae Jaweon: page 301, character 7
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 1, page 307, character 8
  • Unihan data for U+51FA

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu Slip and silk script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
         
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*r̥ʰuːlʔ, *ŋrɯd, *ʔr'uːd, *ŋruːd
*kljods
*sqʰluds
*kʰljuds, *kʰljud
*ʔl'ɯd, *skruːd, *skrod, *skrud
*qʰlɯd, *l̥ʰud
*ŋr'uːd
*ŋr'oːd
*ʔl'oːd, *ʔl'uːd
*sɡloːd, *ʔl'uːd
*kljod
*kljod, *l̥ʰud
*ɡlod, *ɡlud
*l'uːd
*kluːd, *qʰluːd
*kluːd, *ɡluːd
*kʰluːd
*kʰluːd, *ʔl'ud
*kʰluːd, *ɡlud
*kʰluːd
*ʔl'ud
*ʔl'ud
*l̥ʰud
*klud, *kʰlud
*klud
*klud
*kʰlud
*ɡlud
*ɡlud, *ŋɡlud

Ideogrammic compound (會意):  (foot) +  (cave) – to step out of a cave; to exit. Compare .

By the Qin dynasty, the character has lost its original shape. Based on the distorted form, Shuowen mistakenly interprets the character as a pictogram (象形) of a plant growing outwards.

Etymology 1Edit

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • cug4 - literary;
  • cuh4 - vernacular (dialectal).
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʈ͡ʂʰu⁵⁵/
    Harbin /ʈ͡ʂʰu⁴⁴/
    /ʈ͡ʂʰu²⁴/ ~去
    Tianjin /ʈ͡ʂʰu²¹/
    /t͡sʰu²¹/
    Jinan /ʈ͡ʂʰu²¹³/
    Qingdao /tʃʰu⁵⁵/
    Zhengzhou /ʈ͡ʂʰu²⁴/
    Xi'an /p͡fʰu²¹/
    Xining /ʈ͡ʂʰv̩⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʈ͡ʂʰu¹³/
    Lanzhou /p͡fʰu¹³/
    Ürümqi /ʈ͡ʂʰu²¹³/
    Wuhan /t͡ɕʰy²¹³/
    Chengdu /t͡sʰu³¹/
    Guiyang /t͡sʰu²¹/
    Kunming /ʈ͡ʂʰu³¹/
    Nanjing /ʈ͡ʂʰuʔ⁵/
    Hefei /ʈ͡ʂʰuəʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /t͡sʰuəʔ²/
    Pingyao /t͡sʰuʌʔ¹³/
    Hohhot /t͡sʰuəʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /t͡sʰəʔ⁵/
    Suzhou /t͡sʰəʔ⁵/
    Hangzhou /t͡sʰəʔ⁵/
    /t͡sʰz̩ʷəʔ⁵/
    Wenzhou /t͡ɕʰy²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /t͡ɕʰyʔ²¹/
    Tunxi /t͡sʰə⁵/
    Xiang Changsha /t͡ɕʰy²⁴/
    Xiangtan /t͡ɕʰy²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /t͡sʰɨʔ⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /t͡sʰut̚¹/
    Taoyuan /tʃʰut̚²²/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /t͡sʰøt̚⁵/
    Nanning /t͡sʰyt̚⁵⁵/
    Hong Kong /t͡sʰøt̚⁵/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /t͡sʰut̚³²/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /t͡sʰouʔ²³/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /t͡sʰy²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /t͡sʰuk̚²/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /sut̚⁵/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Initial () (24) (24)
    Final () (16) (52)
    Tone (調) Departing (H) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Closed Closed
    Division () III III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /t͡ɕʰiuɪH/ /t͡ɕʰiuɪt̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /t͡ɕʰʷiH/ /t͡ɕʰʷit̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /t͡ɕʰjuɪH/ /t͡ɕʰjuet̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /cʰwiH/ /cʰwit̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /t͡ɕʰuiH/ /t͡ɕʰiuĕt̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /t͡ɕʰwiH/ /t͡ɕʰĭuĕt̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /t͡ɕʰwiH/ /t͡ɕʰi̯uĕt̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    chuì chu
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    chū chuì
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ tsyhwit › ‹ tsyhwijH ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*t-kʰut/ /*t-kʰut-s/
    English go or come out bring or take out

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2 2/2
    No. 1545 1578
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    3 2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*kʰljuds/ /*kʰljud/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to go out
      Antonyms: ()
    2. to leave; to exit
    3. to appear
    4. to show up
    5. to send out; to put forth
    6. to offer
    7. to exceed
    8. to be in excess
    9. to produce
    10. to happen
    11. to publish
    12. to vent
    13. to sell (one's own thing)
    14. to be released (e.g., a product, film, or announcement)
      Windows 10已經一年 [Cantonese, trad.]
      Windows 10已经一年 [Cantonese, simp.]
      Windows 10 ji5 ging1 ceot1 zo2 jat1 nin4 [Jyutping]
      Windows 10 has already been out for a year
    15. Particle placed after verbs to indicate an outward movement.
    16. Particle placed after verbs to indicate a completed action.

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“act; stanza; time, occasion; etc.”).
    (This character, , is the simplified and variant traditional form of .)
    Notes:

    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    The  (れん) (よう) (けい) (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of the verb  () (deru, to come out).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana , rōmaji de)

    1. the process of something coming out
    2. something that comes out

    Derived termsEdit

    Terms derived from  () (de)

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    しゅつ
    Grade: 1
    on’yomi

    From Middle Chinese (MC t͡ɕʰiuɪt̚, “to go or come out”).

    PronunciationEdit

    NounEdit

    (hiragana しゅつ, rōmaji shutsu)

    1. being from a certain place
    2. coming out

    Derived termsEdit

    Terms derived from  (しゅつ) (shutsu)

    Etymology 3Edit

    Kanji in this term

    Grade: 1
    kun’yomi

    Contraction of verb 出ず (izu, to go or come out, obsolete)

    VerbEdit

    (nidan conjugation, hiragana , rōmaji zu, historical hiragana )

    1. (obsolete) to go or come out

    Usage notesEdit

    The 出る (deru) form is now the standard term for this in modern Japanese.

    ReferencesEdit

    1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
    2. 2.0 2.1 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN

    KoreanEdit

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun (nal chul))

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (xuất, xuý)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.