U+5F31, 弱
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5F31

[U+5F30]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5F32]

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 57, +7, 10 strokes, cangjie input 弓一弓戈一 (NMNIM), four-corner 17127, composition ⿰⿹⿹弓冫(GHTJ) or ⿰⿹丿丿⿹弓⿱丿丿(KV))

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 358, character 24
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 9791
  • Dae Jaweon: page 675, character 17
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 996, character 16
  • Unihan data for U+5F31

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𢐅

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     

弓 ("bow") + 彡 ("decoration" [in this case]) as a decorative bow is functionally inferior. Or it might be indicating that the bow is shaking, which implies a worn-out bow.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • jio̍h/lio̍h - vernacular;
  • jio̍k/lio̍k/jia̍k - literary.
  • Wu

    • Dialectal data
    Variety Location
    Mandarin Beijing /ʐuo⁵¹/
    Harbin /iau⁵³/
    /ʐuo⁵³/
    Tianjin /ʐɑu⁵³/
    /ʐɤ⁵³/
    Jinan /luə²¹/
    Qingdao /yə⁴²/
    Zhengzhou /ʐuo²⁴/
    Xi'an /vo²⁴/
    Xining /u⁴⁴/
    Yinchuan /ʐuə¹³/
    Lanzhou /və³¹/
    Ürümqi /ʐuɤ²¹³/
    Wuhan /io²¹³/
    Chengdu /zo³¹/
    Guiyang /zo²¹/
    Kunming /ʐo³¹/
    Nanjing /ioʔ⁵/
    Hefei /ʐuɐʔ⁵/
    Jin Taiyuan /zaʔ²/
    Pingyao /ʐʌʔ⁵³/
    Hohhot /ʐuaʔ⁴³/
    Wu Shanghai /zaʔ¹/
    Suzhou /zɑʔ³/
    Hangzhou /zɑʔ²/
    Wenzhou /ja²¹³/
    Hui Shexian /niɔ²²/
    Tunxi /ȵio¹¹/
    Xiang Changsha /ȵio²⁴/
    Xiangtan /ȵio²⁴/
    Gan Nanchang /ȵiɔʔ⁵/
    /lɔʔ⁵/
    Hakka Meixian /ŋiok̚⁵/
    Taoyuan /ŋiok̚⁵⁵/
    Cantonese Guangzhou /jœk̚²/
    Nanning /jœk̚²²/
    Hong Kong /jœk̚²/
    Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /liɔk̚⁵/
    /lioʔ⁵/
    Fuzhou (Min Dong) /yoʔ⁵/
    Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋiɔ²⁴/
    Shantou (Min Nan) /ziak̚⁵/
    Haikou (Min Nan) /niɔk̚³/

    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Initial () (38)
    Final () (107)
    Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ȵɨɐk̚/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ȵiɐk̚/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ȵʑiɑk̚/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /ȵɨak̚/
    Li
    Rong
    /ȵiak̚/
    Wang
    Li
    /ȵʑĭak̚/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /ȵʑi̯ak̚/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    ruò
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    ruò
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ nyak ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*newk/
    English weak

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/1
    No. 10947
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    2
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*njewɢ/

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. weak; feeble
      /   ―  ruǎnruò  ―  weak, feeble
    2. fragile; delicate

    SynonymsEdit

    • (weak):

    AntonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. weak
      Antonym:
    2. weakness
    3. slightly less than

    ReadingsEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    Kanji in this term
    じゃく
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    PronunciationEdit

    SuffixEdit

    (じゃく) (-jaku

    1. (lengths of time) slightly less than
      (いち)()(かん)(じゃく)
      ichi-jikan-jaku
      a little bit less than an hour
    2. (proscribed) slightly more than[1]
    AntonymsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    1. ^ 塩田雄大 (2017-10-01) , “「1時間弱」は、1時間よりも長い?短い?”, in NHK放送文化研究所[1]

    KoreanEdit

    EtymologyEdit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ȵɨɐk̚).

    Recorded as Middle Korean ᅀᅣᆨ〮 (Yale: zyak) in Hunmong Jahoe (訓蒙字會 / 훈몽자회), 1527.

    Recorded as Middle Korean  (Yale: yak) in Sinjeung yuhap (新增類合 / 신증유합), 1576.

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 약할 (yakhal yak))

    1. Hanja form? of (weak).
      Antonym: ( (gang))

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [2]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    (nhược, ních)

    1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.