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U+5F31, 弱
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5F31

[U+5F30]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5F32]

Contents

TranslingualEdit

Han characterEdit

(radical 57 +7, 10 strokes, cangjie input 弓一弓戈一 (NMNIM), four-corner 17127, composition ⿰⿹⿹弓冫)

Derived charactersEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 358, character 24
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 9791
  • Dae Jaweon: page 675, character 17
  • Hanyu Da Zidian: volume 2, page 996, character 16
  • Unihan data for U+5F31

ChineseEdit

simp. and trad.
alt. forms 𢐅

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
     
Characters in the same phonetic series () (Zhengzhang, 2003) 
Old Chinese
*neːwʔ
*njewɢ
*njewɢ, *neːwɢ
*njewɢ
*rneːwɢ, *rnaːwɢ
*neːwɢ

弓 ("bow") + 彡 ("decoration" [in this case]) as a decorative bow is functionally inferior.

PronunciationEdit


Note:
  • jio̍k/lio̍k/jia̍k - literary;
  • jio̍h/lio̍h - vernacular.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /ʐuo⁵¹/
Harbin /iau⁵³/
/ʐuo⁵³/
Tianjin /ʐɑu⁵³/
/ʐɤ⁵³/
Jinan /luə²¹/
Qingdao /yə⁴²/
Zhengzhou /ʐuo²⁴/
Xi'an /vo²⁴/
Xining /u⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /ʐuə¹³/
Lanzhou /və³¹/
Ürümqi /ʐuɤ²¹³/
Wuhan /io²¹³/
Chengdu /zo³¹/
Guiyang /zo²¹/
Kunming /ʐo³¹/
Nanjing /ioʔ⁵/
Hefei /ʐuɐʔ⁵/
Jin Taiyuan /zaʔ²/
Pingyao /ʐʌʔ⁵³/
Hohhot /ʐuaʔ⁴³/
Wu Shanghai /zaʔ¹/
Suzhou /zɑʔ³/
Hangzhou /zɑʔ²/
Wenzhou /ja²¹³/
Hui Shexian /niɔ²²/
Tunxi /ȵio¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /ȵio²⁴/
Xiangtan /ȵio²⁴/
Gan Nanchang /ȵiɔʔ⁵/
/lɔʔ⁵/
Hakka Meixian /ŋiok̚⁵/
Taoyuan /ŋiok̚⁵⁵/
Cantonese Guangzhou /jœk̚²/
Nanning /jœk̚²²/
Hong Kong /jœk̚²/
Min Xiamen (Min Nan) /liɔk̚⁵/
/lioʔ⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong) /yoʔ⁵/
Jian'ou (Min Bei) /ŋiɔ²⁴/
Shantou (Min Nan) /ziak̚⁵/
Haikou (Min Nan) /niɔk̚³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (38)
Final () (107)
Tone (調) Checked (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵɨɐk̚/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵiɐk̚/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑiɑk̚/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵɨak̚/
Li
Rong
/ȵiak̚/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭak̚/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯ak̚/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
ruò
Baxter-Sagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
ruò
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyak ›
Old
Chinese
/*newk/
English weak

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter-Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 10947
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
2
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njewɢ/

DefinitionsEdit

  1. weak; feeble
    /   ―  ruǎnruò  ―  weak, feeble
  2. fragile; delicate

AntonymsEdit

CompoundsEdit


JapaneseEdit

KanjiEdit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

  1. weak
  2. weakness
  3. slightly less than

ReadingsEdit


KoreanEdit

HanjaEdit

(yak) (hangeul , McCune-Reischauer yak, Yale yak)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.

VietnameseEdit

Han characterEdit

(nhược, ních)

  1. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text {{rfdef}}.