See also: and
U+5F37, 強
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5F37

[U+5F36]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5F38]

TranslingualEdit

Japanese
Simplified
Traditional

Han characterEdit

(radical 57, +8, 11 strokes, cangjie input 弓戈中戈 (NILI), four-corner 13236, composition𧈧 or ⿸)

ReferencesEdit

  • KangXi: page 359, character 23
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 9815
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 999, character 7
  • Unihan data for U+5F37

ChineseEdit

Glyph originEdit

Historical forms of the character
Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han)
Small seal script
 

Zhengzhang (2003): Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡaŋ, *ɡaŋʔ): phonetic (OC *kaŋs, *ɡaŋ, *ɡaŋʔ) + semantic (insect).

Shuowen: Phono-semantic compound (形聲, OC *ɡaŋ, *ɡaŋʔ): phonetic (OC *ɡʷɯːŋ) + semantic (insect).

The character likely originally referred to the rice weevil, an insect that attacks rice and several other crops, before being phonetically borrowed to represent the sense of "strong; powerful", which was previously represented by the character (OC *kaŋs, *ɡaŋ, *ɡaŋʔ).

Pronunciation 1Edit

trad. /
simp.
alternative forms


Note:
  • kiûⁿ - vernacular;
  • kiông/kiâng - literary.
Note:
  • kiang5 - "strong", "forceful";
  • gion5/giên5 - "superior, better" (giên5 - Chaozhou).
  • Wu

  • Rime
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Initial () (30)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Level (Ø)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɡɨɐŋ/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɡiɐŋ/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɡiɑŋ/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /gɨaŋ/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɡiaŋ/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɡĭaŋ/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /gi̯aŋ/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    qiáng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    koeng4
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    qiáng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ gjang ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*N-kaŋ/
    English strong

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 1/2
    No. 10318
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡaŋ/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. strong; powerful; energetic
    2. to strengthen
    3. staunch; strong-willed
    4. brutal; forceful
      乘客下機 / 乘客下机  ―  qiángtuō chéngkè xiàjī  ―  to forcefully drag a passenger off the plane
    5. capable; of a high level
    6. superior; better
    7. slightly more than; plus
      分之 / 分之  ―  sì fēnzhī yī qiáng  ―  a bit more than a fourth
    8. final contestants in a competition; finalist

    SynonymsEdit

    • (strong): (literary) 鸿 (hóng)
    AntonymsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 2Edit

    trad. /
    simp.
    alternative forms



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (30)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɡɨɐŋX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɡiɐŋX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɡiɑŋX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /gɨaŋX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɡiaŋX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɡĭaŋX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /gi̯aŋX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    jiàng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    goeng6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    qiǎng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ gjangX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m-kaŋʔ/
    English make an effort

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 10319
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡaŋʔ/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. to force; to compel; to coerce
      /   ―  miǎnqiǎng  ―  to force somebody to do something
    2. to strive

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 3Edit

    trad. /
    simp.
    alternative forms



    Rime
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Initial () (30)
    Final () (105)
    Tone (調) Rising (X)
    Openness (開合) Open
    Division () III
    Fanqie
    Reconstructions
    Zhengzhang
    Shangfang
    /ɡɨɐŋX/
    Pan
    Wuyun
    /ɡiɐŋX/
    Shao
    Rongfen
    /ɡiɑŋX/
    Edwin
    Pulleyblank
    /gɨaŋX/
    Li
    Rong
    /ɡiaŋX/
    Wang
    Li
    /ɡĭaŋX/
    Bernard
    Karlgren
    /gi̯aŋX/
    Expected
    Mandarin
    Reflex
    jiàng
    Expected
    Cantonese
    Reflex
    goeng6
    BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    Modern
    Beijing
    (Pinyin)
    qiǎng
    Middle
    Chinese
    ‹ gjangX ›
    Old
    Chinese
    /*m-kaŋʔ/
    English make an effort

    Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

    * Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
    * Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
    * Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
    * Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

    * Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
    Zhengzhang system (2003)
    Character
    Reading # 2/2
    No. 10319
    Phonetic
    component
    Rime
    group
    Rime
    subdivision
    0
    Corresponding
    MC rime
    Old
    Chinese
    /*ɡaŋʔ/
    Notes

    DefinitionsEdit

    1. hard; stiff
    2. stubborn; obstinate
    3. A surname​.

    CompoundsEdit

    Pronunciation 4Edit

    For pronunciation and definitions of – see (“to compel; valiant; etc.”).
    (This character, , is a variant form of .)

    ReferencesEdit


    JapaneseEdit

    KanjiEdit

    (grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

    1. strong
      Antonym:
    2. powerful
    3. potent

    ReadingsEdit

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    Kanji in this term
    きょう
    Grade: 2
    on’yomi

    PronunciationEdit

    SuffixEdit

    (きょう) (-kyō

    1. (lengths of time) slightly more than
    AntonymsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    Kanji in this term
    つよし
    Grade: 2
    kun’yomi

    PronunciationEdit

    Proper nounEdit

    (つよし) (Tsuyoshi

    1. A male given name

    KoreanEdit

    Alternative formsEdit

    Etymology 1Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɡɨɐŋ, “strong”).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 까ᇰ (Yale: kkàng)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2] 힘〮셀〯 (Yale: hím sěyl) 가ᇰ (Yale: kàng)

    PronunciationEdit

    HanjaEdit

    Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

    Wikisource

    (eumhun 강할 (ganghal gang))

    1. Hanja form? of (strong; strength).
      Antonym: ( (yak))

    CompoundsEdit

    Etymology 2Edit

    From Middle Chinese (MC ɡɨɐŋX, “make an effort”).

    Historical Readings
    Dongguk Jeongun Reading
    Dongguk Jeongun, 1448 까ᇰ〮 (Yale: kkáng)
    Middle Korean
    Text Eumhun
    Gloss (hun) Reading
    Sinjeung Yuhap, 1576 ᄡᅳᆯ (Yale: him psul) (Yale: kang)

    PronunciationEdit

    • (SK Standard/Seoul) IPA(key): [ka̠(ː)ŋ]
    • Phonetic hangul: [(ː)]
      • Long vowel distinction only applies at the initial position. Most speakers no longer distinguish vowel length at any position.

    HanjaEdit

    (eumhun 힘쓸 (himsseul gang))

    1. Hanja form? of (to force; to coerce).
    2. Hanja form? of (stubborn; obstinate).

    CompoundsEdit

    ReferencesEdit

    • 국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]

    VietnameseEdit

    Han characterEdit

    : Hán Việt readings: cường, cưỡng
    : Nôm readings: càng, cượng, cướng, gắng, cường, gàn, ngượng, cưỡng, gương, gượng, gàng

    CompoundsEdit

    AdverbEdit

    (càng)

    1. Nôm form of càng (With a comparative or verb phrase, establishes a parallel with one or more other such comparatives.; all the more, all the less).
      • 18th–19th century, Hồ Xuân Hương (胡春香), Vịnh quạt (詠𦑗) [The Paper Fan]:
        (càng)(nóng)(bao)(nhiêu)(thời)(càng)(mát)/(yêu)(đêm)(chưa)(phỉ)(lại)(yêu)𣈜(ngày)
        The hotter you get, the more refreshing you get / It wasn’t enough to love at night, now we love during the day.

    ReferencesEdit

    • Lê Sơn Thanh, "Nom-Viet.dat", WinVNKey (details)
    • Thiều Chửu : Hán Việt Tự Điển Hà Nội 1942
    • Trần Văn Chánh: Từ Điển Hán Việt NXB Trẻ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999
    • Vũ Văn Kính: Đại Tự Điển Chữ Nôm, NXB Văn Nghệ, Ho Chi Minh Ville, 1999