See also: and
U+5F13, 弓
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-5F13

[U+5F12]
CJK Unified Ideographs
[U+5F14]
U+2F38, ⼸
KANGXI RADICAL BOW

[U+2F37]
Kangxi Radicals
[U+2F39]

Translingual edit

Stroke order
 

Han character edit

(Kangxi radical 57, +0, 3 strokes, cangjie input (N), four-corner 17207, composition )

  1. Kangxi radical #57, .

Derived characters edit

See also edit

References edit

  • Kangxi Dictionary: page 356, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 9692
  • Dae Jaweon: page 671, character 22
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 2, page 987, character 11
  • Unihan data for U+5F13

Chinese edit

simp. and trad.
alternative forms 𭚥

Glyph origin edit

Historical forms of the character
Shang Western Zhou Warring States Shuowen Jiezi (compiled in Han) Liushutong (compiled in Ming)
Oracle bone script Bronze inscriptions Chu slip and silk script Qin slip script Small seal script Transcribed ancient scripts
           

Pictogram (象形) – a bow.

Etymology edit

Possibly related to Proto-Tibeto-Burman *kuːŋ (tree, branch, stem) (Coblin, 1986), semantically connected with the shape of a bent tree branch. Cognate with Burmese ကိုင်း (kuing:, to bend over; to be bent), အကိုင်း (a.kuing:, stalk; branch), Tedim Chin [script needed] (kung¹, tree), Jingpho kung (to branch; to grow), lakung (branch; limb), Lepcha ᰀᰩᰵ (kóng, branch), ᰀᰫᰵ (kúng, tree) (STEDT).

Schuessler (2007) proposes that both Old Chinese (OC *kʷɯŋ) and Proto-Tibeto-Burman *kuːŋ are derived from Proto-Mon-Khmer *koŋ, whence Nyah Kur [script needed] (kóoŋ, bent (in the middle)), Mon ကိုၚ် (to be bent), Khmer កោង (kaong, to bend; to be bent), Khasi pyrkhung (to bend; to arch), Pear kuŋ (bend), Vietnamese cong (to be bent, curved).

Also compare Proto-Tibeto-Burman *ku(ː)m (arched; vaulted)

Derivatives are (OC *kʷɯːŋ, “(upper) arm”) and (OC *kʰʷɯŋ, “arched; vault; sky”).

Pronunciation edit


Note:
  • keng - vernacular;
  • kiong - literary.

  • Dialectal data
Variety Location
Mandarin Beijing /kuŋ⁵⁵/
Harbin /kuŋ⁴⁴/
Tianjin /kuŋ²¹/
Jinan /kuŋ²¹³/
Qingdao /kəŋ²¹³/
Zhengzhou /kuŋ²⁴/
Xi'an /kuŋ²¹/
Xining /kuə̃⁴⁴/
Yinchuan /kuŋ⁴⁴/
Lanzhou /kũn³¹/
Ürümqi /kuŋ⁴⁴/
Wuhan /koŋ⁵⁵/
Chengdu /koŋ⁵⁵/
/t͡ɕyoŋ⁵⁵/
Guiyang /koŋ⁵⁵/
/t͡ɕioŋ⁵⁵/
Kunming /koŋ⁴⁴/
Nanjing /koŋ³¹/
Hefei /kəŋ²¹/
Jin Taiyuan /kuəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao /kuŋ¹³/
Hohhot /kũŋ³¹/
Wu Shanghai /koŋ⁵³/
Suzhou /koŋ⁵⁵/
Hangzhou /koŋ³³/
Wenzhou /t͡ɕoŋ³³/
Hui Shexian /kuʌ̃³¹/
Tunxi /kan¹¹/
Xiang Changsha /koŋ³³/
Xiangtan /kən³³/
Gan Nanchang /kuŋ⁴²/
Hakka Meixian /kiuŋ⁴⁴/
Taoyuan /kioŋ²⁴/
Cantonese Guangzhou /koŋ⁵³/
Nanning /kuŋ⁵⁵/
Hong Kong /kuŋ⁵⁵/
Min Xiamen (Hokkien) /kiɔŋ⁵⁵/
/kiŋ⁵⁵/
Fuzhou (Eastern Min) /kyŋ⁴⁴/
Jian'ou (Northern Min) /kœyŋ⁵⁴/
Shantou (Teochew) /keŋ³³/
Haikou (Hainanese) /koŋ²³/
/kiaŋ²³/

Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1
Initial () (28)
Final () (2)
Tone (調) Level (Ø)
Openness (開合) Open
Division () III
Fanqie
Baxter kjuwng
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/kɨuŋ/
Pan
Wuyun
/kiuŋ/
Shao
Rongfen
/kiuŋ/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/kuwŋ/
Li
Rong
/kiuŋ/
Wang
Li
/kĭuŋ/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ki̯uŋ/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
jiōng
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
gung1
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading # 1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
gōng
Middle
Chinese
‹ kjuwng ›
Old
Chinese
/*kʷəŋ/
English bow (n.)

Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:

* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;

* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading # 1/1
No. 4079
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
0
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*kʷɯŋ/

Definitions edit

  1. bow (weapon) (Classifier: )
  2. bow (of a stringed instrument, or a cotton bow, or catapult) (Classifier: )
  3. curved; arched
  4. to arch; to bend
  5. (Jiexi Hakka) rainbow
  6. (obsolete) Synonym of () (a traditional Chinese unit of length and area)
  7. a surname: Gong

Synonyms edit

  • (bow of a stringed instrument, or a cotton bow, or catapult) 弓子 (gōngzi)
  • (to arch): 彎曲弯曲 (wānqū)
  • (rainbow):

Compounds edit

See also edit

References edit

Japanese edit

Kanji edit

(grade 2 “Kyōiku” kanji)

Readings edit

Etymology 1 edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. In modern Japanese, only found as a prefix in compounds.[1][2]

Pronunciation edit

Prefix edit

() (yu-

  1. a bow, a bow shape
Derived terms edit

Etymology 2 edit

 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
 
(yumi): Four different types of bow.
 
Japanese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia ja
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
 
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia
 
(yu, yumi, tarashi, kyū): Japanese bows, arrows, and arrow-stand.
 
Yumi bow parts names
Kanji in this term
ゆみ
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

From Old Japanese. Appears in the Man'yōshū (c. 759 CE). A surface analysis suggests a combination of Old Japanese yu (see above) + suffixing element mi, itself of uncertain derivation.

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(ゆみ) (yumi

  1. a bow:
    1. (weaponry) a bow for shooting arrows
    2. (music) a bow for playing a stringed instrument such as a violin or cello
  2. archery
  3. (Shinto) a type of kagura (sacred Shinto song and dance) intended to drive away evil
  4. short for ()()(ゆみ) (hama yumi): a ceremonial archery bow with the power to dispel evil
  5. a bow shape, a curve
  6. a bow-shaped tool used to beat ginned cotton into a softer and finer textile
Coordinate terms edit
Derived terms edit

See also edit

Further reading edit

Etymology 3 edit

Kanji in this term
たらし
Grade: 2
kun’yomi

Alteration from torashi, 連用形 (ren'yōkei, stem or continuative form) of verb torasu, from tora as the 未然形 (mizenkei, incomplete form) of verb 取る (toru, to take) + (su, honorific suffix in Old Japanese). Original meaning was “something kept to hand”.[1][2]

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(たらし) (tarashi

  1. (rare, honorific) an archery bow, particularly one belonging to a noble
Synonyms edit

Etymology 4 edit

Kanji in this term
きゅう
Grade: 2
kan’on

From Middle Chinese (MC kjuwng).[1][2] Compare modern Mandarin (gōng).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

(きゅう) (kyū

  1. (rare) a bow
  2. (obsolete) in ancient Chinese archery, a unit of length for measuring the distance between the archer and the target; one kyū was equal to six (shaku), roughly six feet or 182 centimeters
  3. (obsolete) in ancient China, a unit of length for surveying land; one kyū was equal to eight (shaku), roughly eight feet or 242 centimeters
Usage notes edit

In modern Japanese, the reading kyū is most often found in compounds.

Derived terms edit

References edit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Shōgaku Tosho (1988) 国語大辞典(新装版) [Unabridged Dictionary of Japanese (Revised Edition)] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan, →ISBN
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Matsumura, Akira, editor (2006), 大辞林 [Daijirin] (in Japanese), Third edition, Tokyo: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ NHK Broadcasting Culture Research Institute, editor (1998), NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 [NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary] (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK Publishing, →ISBN

Korean edit

 

the shape of the Hun bow

Etymology edit

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Middle Korean readings, if any”)

Pronunciation edit

Hanja edit

Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:

Wikisource

(eumhun (hwal gung))

  1. Hanja form? of (bow (for shooting arrows).

Compounds edit

Vietnamese edit

Han character edit

: Hán Nôm readings: cung, cong, củng

  1. a bow

Compounds edit

hình cung (形弓): an arc