See also: 时间

ChineseEdit

 
o'clock; time; when
o'clock; time; when; hour; season; period
 
interstice; separate; between
interstice; separate; between; among; space; (measure word)
trad. (時間)
simp. (时间)

EtymologyEdit

For the modern sense of "time" (as opposed to "space"), reborrowed from Japanese 時間 (jikan, time).

PronunciationEdit



Rime
Character
Reading # 1/1 1/2 2/2
Initial () (25) (28) (28)
Final () (19) (73) (73)
Tone (調) Level (Ø) Level (Ø) Departing (H)
Openness (開合) Open Open Open
Division () III II II
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/d͡ʑɨ/ /kˠɛn/ /kˠɛnH/
Pan
Wuyun
/d͡ʑɨ/ /kᵚæn/ /kᵚænH/
Shao
Rongfen
/d͡ʑie/ /kæn/ /kænH/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/d͡ʑɨ/ /kəɨn/ /kəɨnH/
Li
Rong
/ʑiə/ /kɛn/ /kɛnH/
Wang
Li
/ʑĭə/ /kæn/ /kænH/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ʑi/ /kăn/ /kănH/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
chí jiān jiàn
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
si4 gaan1 gaan3

NounEdit

時間

  1. (uncountable) time (the inevitable passing of events from future to present then past)
    愛惜時間 / 爱惜时间  ―  àixī shíjiān  ―  to treasure time
    浪費時間 / 浪费时间  ―  làngfèi shíjiān  ―  to waste time
    打發時間 / 打发时间  ―  dǎfa shíjiān  ―  to kill time
    時間等人 / 时间等人  ―  Shíjiān bù děngrén.  ―  Time waits for no one.
    時間 / 时间  ―  Shíjiān cuī rén lǎo.  ―  Time ages us.
    時間來得及 / 时间来得及  ―  Shíjiān hái láidejí.  ―  All in good time.
    抓緊時間 / 抓紧时间  ―  Zhuājǐn shíjiān!  ―  Get a move on!
  2. (countable) time (a measurement of a quantity of time; a numerical indication of a length of time) (Classifier: m)
    辦公時間 / 办公时间  ―  bàngōng shíjiān  ―  office hours
    我們多少時間 [MSC, trad.]
    我们多少时间 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒmen hái yǒu duōshao shíjiān ne? [Pinyin]
    How much time do we have left?
    身上浪費時間 [MSC, trad.]
    身上浪费时间 [MSC, simp.]
    Bié zài tā shēnshàng làngfèi shíjiān le. [Pinyin]
    Don't waste time on him.
    地球自轉時間23小時564 [MSC, trad.]
    地球自转时间23小时564 [MSC, simp.]
    Dìqiú zìzhuàn yī zhōu de shíjiān shì 23 xiǎoshí 56 fēn 4 miǎo. [Pinyin]
    The time taken for the Earth to make one rotation is 23 hours 56 minutes 4 seconds.
  3. a point in time
    現在時間一點 [MSC, trad.]
    现在时间一点 [MSC, simp.]
    Xiànzài de shíjiān shì yīdiǎn líng wǔ fēn. [Pinyin]
    The time now is five minutes past one.
  4. (uncountable) free time; leisure; spare time
    不知是否時間 [MSC, trad.]
    不知是否时间 [MSC, simp.]
    Bùzhī nín shìfǒu yǒu shíjiān. [Pinyin]
    I wonder if you might have time.
    明天一起吃飯知道沒有時間 [MSC, trad.]
    明天一起吃饭知道没有时间 [MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ xiǎng yuē nǐ míngtiān yīqǐ qù chīfàn, bù zhīdào nǐ yǒu méiyǒu shíjiān. [Pinyin]
    I'd like to invite you out to have a meal tomorrow, if you have time.

SynonymsEdit

Coordinate termsEdit

Derived termsEdit

Further readingEdit


JapaneseEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Kanji in this term

Grade: 2
かん
Grade: 2
on’yomi

Probably originally borrowed from Middle Chinese compound 時間 (dzyi kɛn, literally time interval). Repurposed in the early Meiji period as a translation of the western term time in relation to philosophy in the 1881 publication of 哲学字彙 (Tetsugaku Jii, Philosophy Dictionary) compiled by Inoue Tetsujirō.[1] The meaning "hour" can be analyzed as a compound of () (-ji, o'clock) + (かん) (-kan, time interval suffix). Compare other terms formed with the suffix (かん) (-kan) like (さん)(ぷん)(かん) (sanpunkan) and 三日(みっか)(かん) (mikkakan).

The reading is a mix of the goon reading ji and the kan'on reading kan, suggesting either that the reading changed after borrowing (from the expected goon pronunciation of jiken or the expected kan'on pronunciation of shikan), or that this term was independently coined in Japanese after the constituent terms () (ji) and (かん) (kan) were borrowed.

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

()(かん) (jikan

  1. time
    ()(かん)ありますか?
    Jikan wa arimasu ka?
    Do you have any time?
    ()(かん)いつでも(だい)(じょう)()です。
    Jikan wa itsu de mo daijōbu desu.
    Any time works for me.
    (literally, “As for time, whenever is fine.”)
    もうこんな()(かん)
    Mō konna jikan!
    My, will you look at the time!
    (literally, “[it's] already this sort of time!”)
    ()(かん)ルーズ
    jikan ni rūzu
    never on time
    (literally, “lax about time”)
    ()(かん)(くう)(かん)(かん)(けい)
    jikan to kūkan no kankei
    the relationship between time and space
  2. hour
    1(いち)()(かん)60(ろくじっ)(ぷん)です。
    Ichi-jikan wa rokujippun desu.
    One hour is 60 minutes.
  3. the hours or time when something happens
    ()(けん)()(かん)(おく)れた
    shiken jikan ni okureta
    was late for the exam
    (literally, “late to the time of the exam”)
    (えい)(ぎょう)時間(じかん)(げつ)()(すい)()(ぜん)()()から()()()()までです。
    Eigyō jikan wa getsu-ka-sui, gozen ku-ji kara gogo ni-ji made desu.
    Business hours are Monday to Wednesday, 9 AM to 2 PM.
    (かい)(かん)()(かん)
    kaikan jikan
    hours of operation
    ()(かん)です!
    Jikan desu!
    Time's up!
    (literally, “It's time!”)
    (へい)(えん)()(かん)です!
    Heien no jikan desu!
    We're closing now!
    (literally, “It's time for our closing!”)
    あまり()(かん)がなくてすみません
    amari jikan ga nakute sumimasen
    sorry for not having the time [to do something]
Usage notesEdit

The more general word for time, as in "when something happens", is (toki).

  • (うみ)()()った(とき)
    umibe ni itta toki
    the time I went to the beach, when I went to the beach
Derived termsEdit
Related termsEdit
DescendantsEdit
  • Chinese: 時間
  • Korean: 시간 (sigan)
  • Vietnamese: thời gian
See alsoEdit

CounterEdit

()(かん) (-jikan

  1. an hour-long period
    (いち)()(かん)()()(かん)()()(かん)(はん)
    ichi-jikan, ni-jikan, go-jikan han
    one hour, two hours, five and a half hours
    (なん)()(かん)かかりそうです。
    Nan-jikan mo kakari sō desu.
    Apparently it will take many hours.
See alsoEdit
Japanese number-counter combinations for ()(かん) (jikan)
1 2 3 4 5
(いち)()(かん) (ichijikan) ()()(かん) (nijikan) (さん)()(かん) (sanjikan) ()()(かん) (yojikan) ()()(かん) (gojikan)
6 7 8 9 10
(ろく)()(かん) (rokujikan) (しち)()(かん) (shichijikan)
(なな)()(かん) (nanajikan)
(はち)()(かん) (hachijikan) ()()(かん) (kujikan) (じゅう)()(かん) (jūjikan)
100 1,000 10,000 How many?
(ひゃく)()(かん) (hyakujikan) (せん)()(かん) (senjikan) (いち)(まん)()(かん) (ichimanjikan) (なん)()(かん) (nanjikan)

Etymology 2Edit

Kanji in this term
じ > ち
Grade: 2
かん
Grade: 2
on’yomi

Pronunciation shift to a devoiced initial consonant in certain dialects.

/d͡ʑikaɴ//t͡ɕikaɴ/

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

時間(ちかん) (chikan

  1. (dialect, Ibaraki) time
  2. (dialect, Ibaraki) hour
  3. (dialect, Ibaraki) the hours or time when something happens

CounterEdit

時間(ちかん) (-chikan

  1. (dialect, Ibaraki) an hour-long period

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  • 1988, 国語大辞典(新装版) (Kokugo Dai Jiten, Revised Edition) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Shogakukan

KoreanEdit

Hanja in this term

NounEdit

時間 (sigan) (hangeul 시간)

  1. Hanja form? of 시간 (time, an hour or hours).

VietnameseEdit

Hán tự in this term

NounEdit

時間

  1. Hán tự form of thời gian (time).