See also: KKO and -kkö

FinnishEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Finnic *-kkoi. Equivalent to -kka +‎ -i (compare -kki). Cognate with Estonian -k(u).

SuffixEdit

-kko (front vowel harmony variant -kkö)

  1. Forms collective nouns.
    kehä (frame) + ‎-kko → ‎kehikko (framework)
    valjaat (harness) + ‎-kko → ‎valjakko (team)
  2. Forms nouns for groups of a particular number, including tuples.
    kaksi (two) + ‎-kko → ‎kaksikko (group of two, duo, couple)
    kolme (three) + ‎-kko → ‎kolmikko (group of three, threesome)
    neljä (four) + ‎-kko → ‎nelikko (group of four, quadruple)
  3. Forms nouns denoting essential characteristics of a location, for a (land) surface covered in something, or for land characterised by something in general.
    nurmi (grass) + ‎-kko → ‎nurmikko (lawn)
    ruoko (reed) + ‎-kko → ‎ruoikko (reed bed)
    hieta (sand) + ‎-kko → ‎hietikko (expanse of sand)
    lumme (waterlily) + ‎-kko → ‎lumpeikko (water covered in waterlilies)
    aalto (wave) + ‎-kko → ‎aallokko (swell)
    ranta (shore) + ‎-kko → ‎rannikko (coast)
    kostea (wet, moist) + ‎-kko → ‎kosteikko (wetland)
  4. Forms nouns for groups of something, often plants.
    haapa (aspen) + ‎-kko → ‎haavikko (group of aspen trees, aspen forest)
    taimi (sapling) + ‎-kko → ‎taimikko (group of saplings, recently planted forest)
    porras (step) + ‎-kko → ‎portaikko (set of steps, staircase)
  5. Forms nouns from verbs denoting activities or tools for an activity.
    rynnätä (to attack) + ‎-kko → ‎rynnäkkö (attack)
    yllättää (to surprise) + ‎-kko → ‎ylläkkö (raid)
    valita (to choose) + ‎-kko → ‎valikko (menu (computing))
  6. Forms names for various beings.
    lumi (snow) + ‎-kko → ‎lumikko (least weasel)
    Venäjä (Russia) + ‎-kko → ‎venakko (Russian female)
  7. Forms descriptive nouns.
    hauli (shot) + ‎-kko → ‎haulikko (shotgun)

Usage notesEdit

Usually added to the plural stem of the base noun (-ikko).

DeclensionEdit

Inflection of -kko (Kotus type 4*A/laatikko, kk-k gradation)
nominative -kko -kot
genitive -kon -kkojen
-koiden
-koitten
partitive -kkoa -kkoja
-koita
illative -kkoon -kkoihin
-koihin
singular plural
nominative -kko -kot
accusative nom. -kko -kot
gen. -kon
genitive -kon -kkojen
-koiden
-koitten
partitive -kkoa -kkoja
-koita
inessive -kossa -koissa
elative -kosta -koista
illative -kkoon -kkoihin
-koihin
adessive -kolla -koilla
ablative -kolta -koilta
allative -kolle -koille
essive -kkona -kkoina
translative -koksi -koiksi
instructive -koin
abessive -kotta -koitta
comitative -kkoineen
Possessive forms of -kko (type laatikko)
possessor singular plural
1st person -kkoni -kkomme
2nd person -kkosi -kkonne
3rd person -kkonsa

Derived termsEdit

AnagramsEdit


IngrianEdit

Alternative formsEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Proto-Finnic *-kkoi. Akin to Finnish -kko.

PronunciationEdit

SuffixEdit

-kko (front vowel variant -kkö)

  1. Used to form collective nouns.
    petäjä (pine) + ‎-kko → ‎petäisikko (group of pines)
  2. Used to form groups of a particular number.
    kymmen (ten) + ‎-kko → ‎kymmenikkö (decuplet)
  3. Used to form nouns describing female people.
    linna (town) + ‎-kko → ‎linnakko (townswoman)
  4. Used to form diminutives of certain nouns.
    pää (head) + ‎-kko → ‎pääkkö (head)
  5. (unproductive) Used to form animal names.
    vesi (water) + ‎-kko → ‎vesikko (mink)

Usage notesEdit

  • This suffix doesn't always conform to vowel harmony:
    päähkänä (nut) (front-vocalic) + ‎-kko → ‎päähkänikko (nut grove) (back-vocalic)

DeclensionEdit

Declension of -kko (type 4/koivu, kk-k gradation)
singular plural
nominative -kko -kot
genitive -kon -kkoin, -kkoloin
partitive -kkoa -kkoja, -kkoloja
illative -kkoo -kkoi, -kkoloihe
inessive -kos -kkois, -kkolois
elative -kost -kkoist, -kkoloist
allative -kolle -kkoille, -kkoloille
adessive -kol -kkoil, -kkoloil
ablative -kolt -kkoilt, -kkoloilt
translative -koks -kkoiks, -kkoloiks
essive -kkonna, -kkoon -kkoinna, -kkoloinna, -kkoin, -kkoloin
exessive1) -kkont -kkoint, -kkoloint
1) obsolete
*) the accusative corresponds with either the genitive (sg) or nominative (pl)
**) the comitative is formed by adding the suffix -ka? or -kä? to the genitive.

Derived termsEdit


JapaneseEdit

RomanizationEdit

-kko

  1. Rōmaji transcription of っこ