عالم

ArabicEdit

Etymology 1Edit

Borrowed from Aramaic עָלְמָא‎ / ܥܳܠܡܳܐ(ʿāləmā) or Hebrew עוֹלָם(ʿōlām), possibly from Akkadian 𒂖𒆷𒈬𒌋𒀀 (/ellamu, illamu/, front, before; both temporally and in location; coming before your time or being currently physically before you now).

The pattern فَاعَل(fāʿal) is considered originally foreign to Arabic and Ethiopic, occurring only in likely loanwords such as طَابَع(ṭābaʿ), خَاتَم(ḵātam), فَالَج(fālaj). It should be noted some of these loans are suspected to be early, such as خَاتَم(ḵātam) being present in Old Arabian Inscriptions and عَالَم(ʿālam) retaining the sound masculine plural ending in spite of being treated as a non-human plural; a feature that suggests it existed prior to the restriction of such a use exclusively for male humans; whereas one group renders known Middle Iranian suffixes, as in طَابَق(ṭābaq) and سَاذَج(sāḏaj) and رَامَك(rāmak) and via Aramaic fricativized as in كَامَخ(kāmaḵ) the ending of which became Classical Persian ـه(-a) and ـک(-ak). Nautically, even Dravidian borrowings with this measure like طَالَم(ṭālam) are possible early. Consequently due to its early appearance, the فَاعَل (fāʿal) pattern has since become a sparsely used coined pattern in its own right, typically however still being reserved for loanwords using the structure of these earlier loans as their basis; for example the later loan طَاقَم(ṭāqam).

Alternative formsEdit

NounEdit

عَالَم (ʿālamm (plural عَالَمُون(ʿālamūn) or عَوَالِم(ʿawālim))

  1. world
  2. universe, cosmos, existence
  3. things, creation, that which exists before you
  4. nation, people, group, type, or kind
DeclensionEdit
DescendantsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

Derived from the active participle of the verb عَلِمَ(ʿalima, to know), from the root ع ل م(ʿ-l-m).

NounEdit

عَالِم (ʿālimm (plural عَالِمُون(ʿālimūn) or عُلَمَاء(ʿulamāʾ), feminine عَالِمَة(ʿālima))

  1. scholar, man of letters
  2. knowledgeable person, savant
DeclensionEdit
DescendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  • ˁlm”, in The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon Project, Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College, 1986–
  • Fischer, Wolfdietrich (2006) Grammatik des Klassischen Arabisch (in German), 4th edition, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, →ISBN, § 62 Anm. 5, page 36
  • Fraenkel, Siegmund (1880) De vocabulis in antiquis Arabum carminibus et in Corano peregrinis[1] (in Latin), Leiden: E. J. Brill, page 17
  • Fraenkel, Siegmund (1880) De vocabulis in antiquis Arabum carminibus et in Corano peregrinis[2] (in Latin), Leiden: E. J. Brill, page 21
  • Jeffery, Arthur (1938) The Foreign Vocabulary of the Qurʾān (Gaekwad’s Oriental Series; 79), Baroda: Oriental Institute, pages 208–209
  • Nöldeke, Theodor (1875) Mandäische Grammatik[3] (in German), Halle: Verlag der Buchhandlung des Waisenhauses, page 112

North Levantine ArabicEdit

EtymologyEdit

From Arabic عالَم(ʿālam).

NounEdit

عالم (ʕālamm (plural عوالم(ʕwālim))

  1. world
    Synonym: دني(dini)
  2. people, folk
    Synonym: ناس(nās)
    كان في كتير عالم هنيك.‎‎
    Kān fi ktīr ʕālam hunīk.
    There were a lot of people there.

Usage notesEdit

  • When meaning “people” it is often construed with a feminine or plural verb, like ناس‎.

Ottoman TurkishEdit

 
عَالِم

Etymology 1Edit

From Arabic عَالَم(ʿālam).

NounEdit

عالم (alem) (plural عالمون(alemun), and عوالم(ewalim))

  1. world, universe, everything except God
  2. age, time, period
DescendantsEdit

Etymology 2Edit

From Arabic عَالِم(ʿālim).

NounEdit

عالم (alim) (plural علما(ulema), and علام(ullam))

  1. learned man, scholar, man of letters
  2. particularly, a member of a certain class of men with a state-sponsored tenure, as distinguished from a mufti, being part of the askeri class, alim [since Mehmed II]
DescendantsEdit

Further readingEdit


PersianEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Arabic عَالَم(ʿālam).

NounEdit

Dari Persian عالم
Iranian Persian
Tajik олам (olam)

عالم ('âlam)

  1. world
  2. universe

Etymology 2Edit

From Arabic عَالِم(ʿālim).

AdjectiveEdit

Dari Persian عالم
Iranian Persian
Tajik олим (olim)

عالم ('âlem)

  1. learned
  2. knowledgeable
Related termsEdit

PunjabiEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Arabic عَالَم(ʿālam).

PronunciationEdit

NounEdit

عالَم (ālamm (Gurmukhi spelling ਆਲਮ)

  1. world
  2. universe
  3. kingdom
  4. state, condition

Etymology 2Edit

From Arabic عَالِم(ʿālim).

PronunciationEdit

AdjectiveEdit

عالَم (ālam) (Gurmukhi spelling ਆਲਮ)

  1. learned
  2. knowledgeable
  3. intelligent
  4. wise

Related termsEdit

Usage notesEdit

  • Many Arabic loanwords, such as عالَم(ālam), can have multiple meanings in Punjabi, where in this case, one is related to the noun, while the latter meaning is used to refer to the adjective. Both are borrowed from different Arabic words, yet have the same pronunciation in Punjabi, unlike in, the sister language, Urdu عالِم, (and rarely in Hindi आलिम (ālim)), where there is a distinction in pronunciation between the adjective and the noun. This can cause ambiguity as generally Punjabi speakers, who tend to also speak Hindi and Urdu, might actually mix words from either languages and not emphasise on the difference in pronunciation.

South Levantine ArabicEdit

Root
ع ل م

EtymologyEdit

From Arabic عَالَم(ʿālam).

NounEdit

عالم (ʕālamm

  1. world
    Synonym: دنيا(dinya)

UrduEdit

Etymology 1Edit

From Arabic عَالَم(ʿālam).

NounEdit

عالَم ('ālamm (Hindi spelling आलम)

  1. world
  2. universe
  3. mankind
  4. kingdom
  5. season
  6. state, condition
  7. age, period

Etymology 2Edit

From Arabic عَالِم(ʿālim).

AdjectiveEdit

عالِم ('ālim) (Hindi spelling आलिम)

  1. learned
  2. knowledgeable
  3. intelligent
  4. wise

NounEdit

عالم ('ālimm (Hindi spelling आलिम)

  1. doctor
  2. scientist

Related termsEdit