Arabic edit

Etymology 1 edit

Borrowed from Aramaic עָלְמָא / ܥܳܠܡܳܐ (ʿāləmā) or Hebrew עוֹלָם (ʿōlām), possibly from Akkadian 𒂖𒆷𒈬𒌋𒀀 (/⁠ellamu, illamu⁠/, front, before; both temporally and in location; coming before your time or being currently physically before you now).

Alternative forms edit

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

عَالَم (ʕālamm (plural عَالَمُون (ʕālamūn) or عَوَالِم (ʕawālim))

  1. world
  2. universe, cosmos, existence
  3. (chiefly Christianity) world, hereunder, worldly life
    Synonym: دُنْيَا (dunyā)
    فِي العالَمِ يَكُونُ لَكُم ضِيقٌ، وَلٰكِن ثِقُوا: أَنَا قَد غَلَبْتُ العالَم.
    fī l-ʕālami yakūnu lakum ḍīqun, walākin ṯiqū: ʔanā qad ḡalabtu l-ʕālam.
    In the world ye shall have tribulation; but be of good cheer: I have overcome the world. (John 16:33)
  4. things, creation, that which exists before you
  5. nation, people, group, type, or kind
Declension edit
Descendants edit

Etymology 2 edit

Derived from the active participle of the verb عَلِمَ (ʕalima, to know), from the root ع ل م (ʕ-l-m).

Noun edit

عَالِم (ʕālimm (plural عَالِمُون (ʕālimūn) or عُلَمَاء (ʕulamāʔ), feminine عَالِمَة (ʕālima))

  1. scholar, man of letters, scientist
  2. knowledgeable person, savant
Declension edit
Descendants edit

References edit

  • ˁlm”, in The Comprehensive Aramaic Lexicon Project, Cincinnati: Hebrew Union College, 1986–
  • Fischer, Wolfdietrich (2006) Grammatik des Klassischen Arabisch (in German), 4th edition, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, →ISBN, § 62 Anm. 5, page 36
  • Fraenkel, Siegmund (1880) De vocabulis in antiquis Arabum carminibus et in Corano peregrinis[1] (in Latin), Leiden: E. J. Brill, page 17
  • Fraenkel, Siegmund (1880) De vocabulis in antiquis Arabum carminibus et in Corano peregrinis[2] (in Latin), Leiden: E. J. Brill, page 21
  • Jeffery, Arthur (1938) The Foreign Vocabulary of the Qurʾān (Gaekwad’s Oriental Series; 79), Baroda: Oriental Institute, pages 208–209
  • Nöldeke, Theodor (1875) Mandäische Grammatik[3] (in German), Halle: Verlag der Buchhandlung des Waisenhauses, page 112

Kohistani Shina edit

Noun edit

عالم ('alim)

  1. teacher

North Levantine Arabic edit

Etymology edit

From Arabic عالَم (ʕālam).

Noun edit

عالم (ʕālamm (plural عوالم (ʕwālim))

  1. world
    Synonym: دني (dini)
  2. people, folk
    Synonym: ناس (nās)
    كان في كتير عالم هنيك.
    Kān fi ktīr ʕālam hunīk.
    There were a lot of people there.

Usage notes edit

  • When meaning “people” it is often construed with a feminine or plural verb, like ناس.

Ottoman Turkish edit

 
عَالِم

Etymology 1 edit

From Arabic عَالَم (ʕālam).

Noun edit

عالم (alem) (plural عالمون (alemun), and عوالم (ewalim))

  1. world, universe, everything except God
  2. age, time, period
Descendants edit

Etymology 2 edit

From Arabic عَالِم (ʕālim).

Noun edit

عالم (alim) (plural علما (ulema), and علام (ullam))

  1. learned man, scholar, man of letters
  2. particularly, a member of a certain class of men with a state-sponsored tenure, as distinguished from a mufti, being part of the askeri class, alim [since Mehmed II]

Adjective edit

عالم (alim)

  1. learned, educated
    عالم بر خاتونalim bir hatuna learned lady

Descendants edit

Further reading edit

Persian edit

Etymology 1 edit

Borrowed from Arabic عَالَم (ʕālam).

Pronunciation edit

 

Readings
Classical reading? ālam
Dari reading? ālam
Iranian reading? âlam
Tajik reading? olam

Noun edit

Dari عالم
Iranian Persian
Tajik олам

عالَم ('âlam)

  1. world; universe
    Synonyms: جهان (jahân), دنیا (donyâ)
Descendants edit

Etymology 2 edit

Borrowed from Arabic عَالِم (ʕālim).

Pronunciation edit

 

Readings
Classical reading? ālim
Dari reading? ālim
Iranian reading? âlem
Tajik reading? olim

Adjective edit

Dari عالم
Iranian Persian
Tajik олим

عالِم ('âlem)

  1. learned; knowledgeable
Related terms edit
  • علم ('elm, knowledge)
Descendants edit

Punjabi edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Arabic عَالَم (ʕālam).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

عالَم (ʻālamm (Gurmukhi spelling ਆਲਮ)

  1. world
  2. universe
  3. kingdom
  4. state, condition

Etymology 2 edit

From Arabic عَالِم (ʕālim).

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

عالَم (ʻālam) (Gurmukhi spelling ਆਲਮ)

  1. learned
  2. knowledgeable
  3. intelligent
  4. wise
Usage notes edit
  • Many Arabic loanwords, such as عالَم (ʻālam), can have multiple meanings in Punjabi, where in this case, one is related to the noun, while the latter meaning is used to refer to the adjective. Both are borrowed from different Arabic words, yet have the same pronunciation in Punjabi, unlike in, the sister language, Urdu عالِم ('ālim), (and rarely in Hindi आलिम (ālim)), where there is a distinction in pronunciation between the adjective and the noun. This can cause ambiguity as generally Punjabi speakers, who tend to also speak Hindi and Urdu, might actually mix words from either languages and not emphasise on the difference in pronunciation.
Related terms edit

South Levantine Arabic edit

Root
ع ل م
7 terms

Etymology 1 edit

From Arabic عَالَم (ʕālam).

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ʕaː.lam/, [ˈʕæː.lam]
  • (file)

Noun edit

عالم (ʕālamm

  1. world
    Synonym: دنيا (dinya)

Etymology 2 edit

From Arabic عَالِم (ʕālim).

Pronunciation edit

  • IPA(key): /ʕaː.lim/, [ˈʕæː.lɪm]
  • (file)

Adjective edit

عالم (ʕālem) (feminine عالمة (ʕālme), elative أعلم (ʔaʕlam))

  1. aware
  2. (formal) knowing

Noun edit

عالم (ʕālemm (plural علماء (ʕulamāʔ), feminine عالمة (ʕālme))

  1. scholar, scientist
    Synonym: باحث (bāḥes)

Urdu edit

Etymology 1 edit

From Arabic عَالَم (ʕālam).

Pronunciation edit

Noun edit

عالَم ('ālamm (Hindi spelling आलम)

  1. world
  2. universe
  3. mankind
  4. kingdom
  5. season
  6. state, condition
  7. age, period

Etymology 2 edit

From Arabic عَالِم (ʕālim).

Pronunciation edit

Adjective edit

عالِم ('ālim) (Hindi spelling आलिम)

  1. learned
  2. knowledgeable
  3. intelligent
  4. wise

Noun edit

عالم ('ālimm (Hindi spelling आलिम)

  1. doctor
  2. scientist
Related terms edit