यम • (yama) m
- a rein, curb, bridle.
- a driver, charioteer.
- the act of checking or curbing, suppression, restraint (with वाचाम्, restraint of words, silence).
- self-control forbearance, any great moral rule or duty (as opp. to नियम, a minor observance ; in Yājñ. iii, 313 ten यमs are mentioned, sometimes only five).
- (in योग) self-restraint (as the first of the eight अङ्गs or means of attaining mental concentration).
- any rule or observance.
यम • (yama) m, f
- twin-born, twin, forming a pair.
यम • (yama) m
- a twin, one of a pair or couple, a fellow (du. ‘ the twins ’ N. of the अश्विन्s and of their twin children by माद्री, called नकुल and सह-देव ; यमौ मिथुनौ, twins of different sex).
- a symbolical N. for the number ‘ two ’.
- Name of the god who presides over the पितृs (q.v.) and rules the spirits of the dead. (he is regarded as the first of men and born from विवस्वत्, ‘ the Sun ’, and his wife सरण्यू ; while his brother, the seventh मनु, another form of the first man, is the son of विवस्वत् and संज्ञा, the image of सरण्यू ; his twin-sister is यमी, with whom he resists sexual alliance, but by whom he is mourned after his death, so that the gods, to make her forget her sorrow, create night ; in the वेद he is called a king or संगमनो जनानाम्, ‘ the gatherer of men ’, and rules over the departed fathers in heaven, the road to which is guarded by two broad-nosed, four-eyed, spotted dogs, the children of शरमा ; in Post-vedic mythology he is the appointed Judge and ‘ Restrainer ’ or ‘ Punisher ’ of the dead, in which capacity he is also called धर्मराज or धर्म and corresponds to the Greek Pluto and to Minos ; his abode is in some region of the lower world called यम-पुर ; thither a soul when it leaves the body, is said to repair, and there, after the recorder, चित्र-गुप्त, has read an account of its actions kept in a book called अग्र-संधाना, it receives a just sentence ; in MBh. यम is described as dressed in blood-red garments, with a glittering form, a crown on his head, glowing eyes and like वरुण, holding a noose, with which he binds the spirit after drawing it from the body, in size about the measure of a man's thumb ; he is otherwise represented as grim in aspect, green in colour, clothed in red, riding on a buffalo, and holding a club in one hind and noose in the other ; in the later mythology he is always represented as a terrible deity inflicting tortures, called यातना, on departed spirits ; he is also one of the 8 guardians of the world as regent of the South quarter ; he is the regent of the नक्षत्र अप-भरणी or भरणी, the supposed author of RV. x, 10 ; 14, of a hymn to विष्णु and of a law-book ; यमस्यार्कः N. of a सामन् ĀrshBr.)
- Name of the planet Saturn (regarded as the son of विवस्वत् and छाया).
- Name of one of स्कन्द's attendants (mentioned together with अति-यम).
- a crow (compare -दूतक)
- a bad horse (whose limbs are either too small or too large).
यम • (yama) n
- a pair, brace, couple.
- (grammar) a twin-letter (the consonant interposed and generally understood, but not written in practice, between a nasal immediately preceded by one of the four other consonants in each class)
- pitch of the voice, tone of utterance, key.
- Monier William's Sanskrit-English Dictionary, 2nd Ed. 1899